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Full text of "An Urdu manual by the phonetic inductive method"

N URDU MANUAL 
;Y THE PHONETIC 
JDUCTIVE METHOD 

:THOS. F.CUMMINGS = 



AN URDU MANUAL 



BY THE 



PHONETIC INDUCTIVE METHOD 



REV. THOS. F. CUMMINGS 



FIT FABRICANDO FABER 




PUBLISHED 

AT THE DIRECTION OF THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN MISSION 
GUJRANWALA. INDIA 1909. 



W. DRUGULIN, PRINTERS AND ORIENTAL PUBLISHERS 
LEIPSIC, GERMANY. 



TO MY FELLOW MISSIONARIES 

WHOSE HELP AND ENCOURAGEMENT HAVE MADE 

THE PUBLICATION OF THIS MANUAL THUS 

EARLY A POSSIBILITY 

THIS VOLUME IS GRATEFULLY DEDICATED 



2234892 



PREFACE. 

The publication of another "help" to Urdu is justified by 
the success of this method during the eight years that it has 
been under trial. By the aid of type-writer and mimeograph, 
the lessons have so proved their utility that the Mission ordered 
all new missionaries to use this method, and that the Manual 
should be published. 

The author regrets the necessity of publishing, while so 
far from India, and without having brought the book up to 
his ideal of what it ought to be. That the principles of the 
Manual are final is beyond question. That the application is 
so, is too much to hope for. 

The principles are: I. A scientific application of phonetics, 
through diagrams and practical examples, to the solution of 
the difficulties of pronunciation. 2. The sentence, the unit of 
speech. 3. The ear, the medium of instruction and the gover- 
nor of the tongue. 4. A limited vocabulary, a prime necessity. 
5. Thoroughness, a repetition of idioms until they are absolutely 
fixed in the memory. 6. Grammar teaching, not by paradigms, 
but by concrete examples. 7. Oral composition, within a small 
vocabulary, to lead up to the mastery of all ordinary expression. 
8. Ready, fluent, accurate speech and hearing to be attained, 
within narrow limits, as the basis of the ability to use Urdu well. 

Thanks are due to Prof. A. Graham Bell for permission 
to use his cuts, illustrative of the position of the organs of 
speech and to Miss M. R. Martin for valuable assistance in 
reading the MS. 



VIII 

It is my hope that I may soon be able to work out, on 
these same principles in English, such a basic manual, as, con- 
fined to the limits of the vocabulary of St. John plus that of 
everyday affairs, shall give a good working vocabulary and 
lay a firm foundation for the future full mastery of the Punjabi, 
or whatever other tongue it may be transmuted into. 

The past success of the Method may be due to the in- 
sistence that every lesson should be thoroughly in hand be- 
fore another was doled out. The pupil will have to be his own 
mentor to this end. 

With a request for criticism and suggestion, but with also, 
a warning that these lessons are not automatic, and that a 
mere reading, or cursory study will give no mastery of the 
tongue, the Manual is sent forth, to lighten, I trust, the task 
of learning Urdu. 

New Wilmington, Pa., U. S. A. 
June, 1909. 



THE TRUE METHOD OF LANGUAGE STUDY. 

i. In beginning language study, the question of method 
is of the first importance. Of all the various books for the 
learning of Urdu, there is none that appears to meet the diffi- 
culties. The ordinary method would seem to be something 
like turning a man loose in the forest, and telling him to find 
his way out, as others have done before him. If he asks for 
a path, or a guide, he is given the hobby-horse of the primer, 
and told to sally forth. Those who have thus become prac- 
tical linguists, have done so in spite of, and not by any help 
that this method is supposed to afford them. How many have 
found the old way, a method of blunders, by a blunderer, and 
for blunders, and that "Blundering into power is a slow, dis- 
couraging, and costly, not to say impossible way to attain 
success". What discouragements have laid hold of the fol- 
lowers of this method! If by any chance they have succeeded 
in getting one tongue, it has not materially lightened the task 
of learning another, so that having learned Urdu, it may 
be, they pass all their lives in the midst of the people of another 
tongue Hindi, Punjabi, or other dialect but never learn to 
use it. This reader- grammar method has many advocates 
and more followers, because the beginner, though he be firmly 
persuaded of its defects, is impotent to block out a path for 
himself. It would be very easy to write pages in condemnation 
of this scholastic method, but unless our criticism is constructive 
rather than destructive merely, we cannot hope to help toward 
the solution of the problem. 



In working out this method, anything that would help me 
has been freely used. No claim of originality is made, but it 
is believed that the combination of principles and their prac- 
tical application in this phonetic inductive method is unique and 
helpful. Sweet's Primer of Phonetics, and Bell's Visible Speech 
for phonetics, and Prendergast's Mastery Method have been 
particularly helpful. 

2. A good method is imperative, and it should be scienti- 
fic and practical. Power is lost by failure to be methodical. 
When one first comes to India, and with enthusiasm takes up 
the study of the language, the success of the first months is 
vital to the success of his whole life. If he is now started in 
the right way, his daily progress will lead him on to greater 
attainments; but if his success is indifferent, he may pass his 
whole life here, and never get away from the indifferent pro- 
nunciation and false idiom that too often characterise the 
foreigner. 

Just as Capt Eads put jetties into the shallows of the 
Mississippi, and by confining its waters to a narrow channel, 
succeeded in making a way for the most heavily laden steamers 
to pass in and out, so we must confine our efforts in the be- 
ginning to proper channels and limit them so straitly that 
they must accomplish something. If not thus limited, effort 
will be dissipated, sometimes hither sometimes thither, so that, 
instead of "wearing channels" for new thoughts in our brains, 
we shall find it a quagmire, and, when we try to talk, our- 
selves becoming, rather, mired in some marsh of expression, 
unable to find a way out. Necessarily these channels must at 
first be shallow, able to carry only the simplest barques of 
thought, but as time goes on, they shall wear deeper and deeper, 
till soon the most heavily laden may float easily along a well 
deepened outlet. 

3. The true, scientific method will proceed from the known 
to the unknown, in a gradual and practical manner. It must 



cultivate the ear for hearing, the tongue for speaking, and the 
memory for guiding both. It should confine the pupil at first 
to the commonest idioms, and in the course of six months 
or a year fit him to converse on simple subjects. 

4. Let us note the principles that lie at the basis of 
language, which must be followed in learning any tongue. 

A language is a method of expressing ideas by articulate 
speech. The English language is that method which is used 
by the English people for expressing their ideas. Ideas are 
the foundation, and words the material for the superstructure. 
It is very fortunate that our ideas are largely the same as 
those of the Indians. Consequently we have simply to get new 
clothes for old dolls. When we run across new ideas, as we 
frequently do, now in words and continually in idioms, we have 
a good deal more difficulty in mastering them. 

The child method of teaching, that is followed so often, 
is faulty for this, if for no other reason, that the child has to 
learn ideas along with his words, while the adult has a world 
of ideas crying for expression. Consequently, the confinement 
of the adult learner to the ordinary, simple sentences, suited 
to a child, is an outrage on the adult intellect. The simple 
is much easier evolved from the complex, than the complex 
from the simple. Hence, to begin with a complex sentence 
is best for the adult foreigner for, such a sentence, when 
mastered, can be made into various simple sentences. 

A child, when learning its mother, or, indeed, any, tongue, 
hears the same sounds and words over and over again, till, 
all unconsciously, they crystallise into correct concepts. The 
adult foreigner must consciously and intentionally make such 
opportunities of hearing these words and sounds repeated, 
until he secures them correctly, and not trust to securing a 
clear concept from the babel of sounds, as they pass rapidly 
over his untrained ear. 

This, owing to his prejudiced adult mind, takes longer 

i* 



than for a child, who has no preconceived notions of how a 
thing ought to be said, or how a "t", for example, ought to 
sound, as has his grown brother. 

Our ideas are expressed by words, which we divide into 
nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, con- 
junctions, and interjections. Urdu nouns may occur in about 
ten different forms, according to genders, cases, and numbers; 
two or three forms will cover all those of the preposition; four 
will include all those of the adjective ia the simplest form, 
which in English has but one; the personal pronouns have 
about twenty forms, a few less than in English, and these, 
together with the other pronouns, sum up about the same 
number of forms as we have in the English pronouns; adverbs 
have a number of regular forms, but many irregular; the verb, 
however, is unusually rich in forms, for one root, as "tutna", 
to be broken, "pitna" to be beaten, may give in the intransitive 
paradigm thirty; in the active, forty five; and in the passive, 
one hundred and eight variant forms; add to these the causals 
with their passives, and we get over three hundred forms from 
one root. All verbs do not, of course, have so many; but few 
have less than thirty, while most have about one hundred. 
When we note further, that the active participle "pitta", beating, 
"torta", breaking, may occur in nineteen different places, with 
a differing form for masculine singular and plural, and for the 
feminine, thus multiplying it by three, giving it in fifty seven 
places; when we consider that the past participal form, "pita", 
beaten, "tora", broken, may be found in twenty four places in 
the active, and fifty four in the passive, where it may have, 
in each of these seventy eight places, one of three forms, 
according as it must agree with its subject, masculine in "a", 
plural in "e" or feminine in "f", or most anomalously with its 
object, and, furthermore, that many of these verbs have a 
variant form with "diya", "liya" or "gaya", as the speaker is 
pleased to use them, to convey a slightly different idea, and 



sometimes with no difference at all; when to all these forms, 
we add the various idiomatic compound verbs, which ex- 
press custom, desire, permission, beginning, and several other 
ideas the fact that the Urdu verb is rich in forms begins 
to be impressed on one, and the difficulty of having all these 
variant forms at one's command so thoroughly that in the 
rapid flow of conversation they may come without thought 
or hesitation, the problem of learning this verb is seen to be 
no easy one, and one can appreciate the fact that learning a 
language is more than learning a word, or series of words, in 
one form. Fortunately the Urdu forms are rather regular, so 
that though difficult in one way, yet we do not have the con- 
tinual irregularities to contend with that are found in the 
English verb. We must, then, for all parts of speech, save * 
the verb, learn to use about sixty forms, while for the neuter 
verb thirty, and for the active and causal, forty five each, and 
for the passive, it is more an art of combination than of learn- 
ing new forms, so that we may reduce the total of verb 
forms to about one hundred and fifty, or about two hundred 
and ten forms for all the parts of speech. The difficulty of 
learning these is lessened by the fact that nouns, adjectives, 
and participles ordinarily have the same ending for the same 
genders. The great difficulty really comes in acquiring the 
new idea of looking at neuters as feminine or masculine, of 
thinking "she" of a book and saying "he" of water, of having 
verbs agree with this new idea, and of expressing word relations 
by changed endings, as well as by additional words. 

5. Though words are the superstructure of language, yet 
the learning of words, merely, will not give one, as has been 
noted, command of a language. The problem is much more 
complex. It requires the learning of all the various forms that 
these words may assume, and the acquiring of the ability to 
use these in the correct place, without hesitation, as occasion 
may demand. Words no more make a language than do 



bricks a house. They are the building material, which must 
be fitted and joined together to make the whole. They may 
well be likened to building blocks, whose ends are sometimes 
jointed, and sometimes square. These cannot be thrown together 
at random, but each must have its own proper adjustment, 
else the structure will fall. A feminine adjective, for example, 
cannot go with a masculine noun, a nominative form cannot 
go with a preposition (and, again, may be, it can) ; a masculine 
verb should not be compelled to associate with a feminine 
subject. To think, or attempt, to master a language by 
learning fifty words a day for a given number of weeks, invites 
failure. Even if such a task were completed, the language has 
not been mastered. We must learn to fit these words together 
so that they shall correctly represent our idea. A word itself, 
it is true, does represent an idea, but its ending and position 
in the sentence gives its relation to the other ideas therein 
expressed, and it is the correlation of ideas that expresses 
thought. This word -learning method will often give good 
ability in understanding a language, as written, but it will 
not give a productive command of any language. If we 
throw down the words "boy", "stick", "man", ''beat", "with", 
we have expressed ideas, but have not conveyed any clear 
thought to the hearer. In whatever way our language 
expresses these inter-relations, we must learn to use that 
method. Hence, the great fundamental principle of our 
method is this, THE SENTENCE IS THE UNIT OF LAN- 
GUAGE. 

6. Shall the ear or the eye be the medium of imparting 
the new language? Shall we study the printed page, or shall 
we talk with the people? Both. But the word language, from 
"lingua", a tongue, tells primarily what to do. Speech comes 
before books. Hence, the scholastic method of learning languages 
from books is contrary to nature. Use the printed page by 
all means, but only to assist the memory in teaching the tongue 



to speak. Reading is not difficult after one has learned to 
speak. 

To learn a language is only learning to associate ideas 
with certain sounds. We hear "rose", and think of the familiar 
flower. The Hindustani hears the sound "roz", and it conveys 
to him an entirely different idea, that of day. His association 
of idea and sound is different. Let our associations of ideas 
be of sound to the ear, not of printing to the eye. 

7. The true language method, then, must comprise First, 
A training for the ear to enable it to hear the words uttered 
and to catch them with discrimination, so that they will be 
differentiated from those of similar sound in our own, or the 
Urdu language: for example, bari "large", must be distinguished 
from English berry, and from barf "free", bhari "full", and barhi 
"increased", a simple matter for the trained eye, but a different 
and difficult problem for the untrained and adult ear. 

Second, After this ear-training, there must be a training 
of the vocal organs to enable them to reproduce the Urdu 
sounds so correctly that the Indian, accustomed to his own 
peculiar distinctions of t's and d's, may hear nothing that 
will confuse him or violate his sense of phonetic harmony. 

As the old Dutch masters when they set about to draw the 
Magi, unconsciously clothed those Easterners in the Dutch 
national costume, so too often we reproduce Urdu words in our 
own brogue, speaking our own "o's" and "i's" and "d's" and "t's", 
to the confusion of the hearer and the ridicule of our own 
learning. It is for this reason that the new missionary, after 
his best effort in Hindustani has often been told by the puzzled 
hearer, "We do not understand English". 

Third, The method must be such as will secure the expres- 
sion of our ideas in correct idiom. This requirement is more 
easily stated than either of the preceding, but it is, perhaps, 
the most difficult of attainment, and here is the crucial test of 
any method. This training must include the training the 



memory to understand the meaning of the sounds uttered in 
our hearing, and, also, the imparting to it the ability to prompt 
the tongue to a ready and accurate utterance of any sounds 
that we may wish to make. If our eye wanders, it will be 
evident that we do not understand; if the tongue hesitates, 
when it ought to run freely, it will show our weakness. 

The value of a correct concept, for accuracy of speech, was 
shown one day, by a small boy, who while eating his dinner, was 
asked a question by his sister, which he did not wish to answer. 
"Don't bother me", said he, "I am eabing No, eating my 
dinner". His ear at once recognised the mistake, and he 
righted it himself. When we have reached the point where 
our ear sits as corrector over our tongue, then, and not till 
then, may we hope to attain the mastery of any language. 

8. Intonation. Pronunciation of individual words, however 
important in itself it may be, is not all that there is of pro- 
nunciation in a sentence, for there is also intonation, which 
depends on emphasis, organic basis and voice timbre, and it 
is in many ways more important than the pronunciation of 
individual words. This, ordinarily, can only be acquired by 
long association with those who speak the language, and even 
such association never enables some to get rid of their native 
brogue, though they may live abroad for many years. 

9. Idiomatic Expression. Correct models must be tho- 
roughly learned, until there is no hesitation in their repro- 
duction. These models should contain examples of all the 
idioms that need to be used. They must contain all differing 
forms of gender, number, and person; of case, mood, and tense, 
until the pupil is familiar with them in actual examples, firmly 
fixed in his memory by hundreds of repetitions. If he will 
confine himself to ten or fifteen hundred words, he will likely, 
in the course of six months, be able to converse on simple 
subjects, being able to change these words through all their 
inflections. 



To secure this, an idea should be presented to the mind 
in connection with its audible Urdu expression, over and over 
again, until the concept of the sounds is formed. 

Then the tongue must learn to repeat it readily, fluently 
and accurately. As all voice-sounds are produced by imitation, 
all defects in hearing entail defects in utterance. Those who 
are born deaf remain dumb. Not because they cannot speak, 
as has been shown by the schools that have trained the dumb 
to speak, but because they do not hear anything to imitate. 
As the novice is deaf to all peculiar foreign sounds, we must 
first train his ear to hear, in order to train his tongue to speak. 
To secure this the pupil must learn at the mouth of one who 
speaks the language properly. Almost any native is better 
for this than the best foreigner, and if our instructor is speaking 
his mother tongue, we are almost sure to have the sounds in 
their purity. At first, all study should be carried on at the 
mouth of the teacher. To sit down to the printed page, as 
some do, and fix our own improper conception of these sounds, 
by repeating what we think they are, is sheer folly. Those 
who imagine that they can learn Urdu by having a teacher 
one or two hours a day, may get it to their own satisfaction, 
but they are not likely to be adepts in pronunciation, or con- 
versation. 

10. Success. The secret of success lies in repetition. Few 
people have the ability for hard work, which Carlyle calls 
"genius", the ability to repeat a sentence often enough to 
master it. "No one ever gained a fluent command over many 
words, without first mastering a few at a time. Repetition 
of the same words in varied combinations, thus disclosing their 
various forms and uses, is the method whereby languages 
reveal their secrets". Let your motto be REPETITION. First 
by the teacher, while the pupil carefully listens; then, when a 
concept of the sound has been formed, repetition by the pupil, 
until the habit of thus saying it has been formed. A habit, 



IO 

be it understood, is the ability to do a thing without thinking 
of how you are doing it. Every habit is the result of a great 
number of conscious acts, which gradually pass over into the 
realm of unconscious acting. Patient, concious, conscientious 
repetition of the sounds and idioms will beget a habit, till, lo, 
we speak without thinking of the medium whereby we speak. 
Language is like any other instrument so long as the in- 
strument takes our thought, the work fares badly; but when 
the instrument answers our bidding, as though it were a part 
of ourselves, then our work is in a fair way to be well done. 
"Yet, mere practice will never bring the highest skill. It must 
be heedful, thoughtful practice, with close observation of others 
and a sharp watching of ourselves, and all this controlled by 
good sense and good taste." 

1 1 . The Standard of Attainment. This is where most fail. 
All their education has not taught them what it is to learn 
a thing. The old school standard ability to translate a sen- 
tence hesitatingly or after a moment's thought must be 
thrown away. Perfection is what we aim at. The desired idea 
must be expressed readily, without hesitation or corrections; 
clearly, without confusing the hearer's mind, as to what is meant; 
and, lastly, correctly, in the idiom of the Urdu. This ac- 
curacy should be attained in the study, and not be left to be 
secured in the strife of actual speech. It takes a good many 
thousand shots at the butts to make a good marksman, but, 
when good shooting wins the battle, we say that it was am- 
munition well spent. It will take many thousands of repetitions 
of sentences and sounds in your study, before you can be a 
good linguist, but it will be worth all the repetition. Repeat 
till you wear channels in your brain. Failure here means failure 
everywhere. Oh, yes, the people may understand you, you 
may even be an acceptable speaker because of the excellence 
of your spirit, but you can never be half the profit to others 
that you might have been. Ordinary advice is "Go and talk to 



^ I T L 

the people, and learn by talking". Good advice, if you could 
talk. Our plan is to teach you some proper models of speech 
and then send you out to talk. After a few months, during 
which you have fixed these models securely in your memory, 
the more you talk the better. Well committed models are like 
the moulds of the brickmaker. Time spent on their prepara- 
tion is time saved. Try to work without moulds and though 
you may pat out a few bricks, yet will they be ill shaped 
and few in number. Months spent on sentence -moulds are 
months saved. 

12. Special Difficulties. Each tongue has its own pecu- 
liarities and its own idioms, and, as a consequence, its own 
difficulties. These may be generalised under the heads of 
pronunciation and syntax. The first step in the overcoming 
of these difficulties is the knowledge of what they are. A 
person who had lived many years in the Punjab was asked 
if the Punjabi aspirates had ever been found a difficulty. 
"Oh no, none at all", was the reply. Quite right in point 
of fact, for, far from having mastered these most difficult 
sounds, they had not even been recognised as out of the 
ordinary. 

The more evident difficulties of pronunciation lie in the 
fs and d's, the r's, and the aspirates of the language. The 
t, th, t, th, though they all differ from each other, and from 
our English t, yet at first give to us only the t effect, so that 
it seems to us that there are four t's. 

So are there four d's d, dh, d and dh. The two r's 
r and r, the p and ph, the b and bh, the k, kh and g, gh 
kh, and g these all differ among themselves and though 
these differences may seem immaterial to our ear, yet they 
are never so to the native, or well trained, ear, and, very often, 
they are vital to the understanding of a sentence. Shortly 
you shall find yourself wondering that you could ever have 
been so stupid as to think any two of them the same. 



12 

Exercises for training the ear and tongue are fully given. 
The pupil should listen to these ear -exercises, until he has 
caught some difference, between the t's, for example, and then 
attempt to say them. Trying to say them before any differ- 
ence is recognised, is like having the blind draw, or the deaf 
sing. Let the pupil use sight and touch to supplement his 
defective hearing, and so gain a quick recognition of whether 
it is dental or cerebral "t", trilled or flapped "r", aspirate or 
unaspirate "k". Train your ear to answer all these questions 
for itself, without more than a repetition of the word. Do not 
go through life asking, "Is it 'hard' or 'soft'?" "How do you 
spell it?" etc. 

Still more subtle differences of pronunciation are found in 
the vowels, which though usually said to be like the corres- 
ponding English vowels, do yet differ from them by a very 
noteworthy difference. This difference is not apparent to one 
just from the West, and it remains unnoticed by many all 
their lives. See sec. 24,25. 

13. Difficulties of Syntax. These are most manifest in 
the matter of genders, but this is not so much the case with 
the Urdu pronouns, as with the English, for the Urdu pro- 
nouns are of one form for all genders in each of the persons, 
but it is in the noun, adjective, and verb, that this gender diffi- 
culty comes to the fore. We learn that kdld means black and 
roti bread, but we must not say kdld roti, but kali roti, since 
kdld is the form that goes with the masculine, and roti is 
feminine. Yet we must say kdld pdni, for pdni is masculine. 
This is for some an almost insuperable obstacle, yet it must 
be overcome, otherwise the effect is often painful and always 
grotesque. It is as bad for us to say "kala roti", as it is for 
them to say of a woman, "He went to town". 

Case, tense and gender forms of the other parts of speech 
are a very great difficulty, but they must be systematically 
attacked and thoroughly mastered. It is the aim of this manual 



T O mim _ 

to introduce nothing that shall not aid in the solution of these 
difficulties, and to leave none such difficulty unprovided for. 

14. Grammar by Paradigms. To teach grammar by para- 
digms is contrary to the inductive method. It is rather taught 
by the introduction of these forms in sentences. To teach 
Mai n hu n , tu hai, wuh hai, ham hai n , turn ho, wuh hai n , I am, 
thou art, he is, we are, you are, they are, is worse than use- 
less, for the instant that you wish to use one of these forms 
in a sentence, you must unlearn the combination taught and 
say it in another order. E. g. Wuh hai = He is, but to say 
"He is black" we must not say wuh hai kala. but change 
and say "wuh kala hai". Nothing should be learned in juxta- 
position, which does not so occur in speech. If forms are 
learned from paradigms, that will give no practical mastery 
of them, while if learnt by this system in sentences from slips, 
one will be able to use them in every day speech. 

15. Diversification. "Oral composition", as Prendergast 
calls it, or the changing of model sentences by the substitution 
of other common words in the place of those that occur in 
the model, is the only way to secure facility in conversation. 
When we have learned the sentence, "John is going to the 
city for meat", and have also learned other sentences, such 
as "We will take you to the station to get the box", we can 
take the sentences and change them thus, We are going to the 
city for meat for the box for you. John will take you 
for the meat, etc., and thus by the gradual introduction of 
nouns and pronouns as subjects, of verbs, adverbs, etc., we 
get command of the language. This is really the true path 
to the mastery of any language. Not a "royal road" perhaps, 
but a sure and fixed path, from which the wayfarer need 
not go astray. Few, however, have the moral stamina, 
shall I say? Certainly, few have the perseverance, to do this 
as it ought to be done. Few teachers have that true appre- 
ciation of what it is to learn a language which will enable them 



14 

to insist on intelligent repetition of the same words and idioms, 
until they are firmly fixed in the minds of their pupils. Few 
teachers* or pupils really know the almost numberless repeti- 
tions that are required before any new idiom is thoroughly 
grasped. It requires wonderful patience on the part of the 
teacher, with a kindly encouraging of the pupil, rather than 
hard looks and upbraiding for a failure of memory, or slip of 
the tongue. "You had that yesterday" is not a thing to be 
said very often. Expect from yourself, and from every pupil, 
numerous lapses of memory, when it comes to the fixing of 
Urdu idioms. Be patient with your memory. Do not expect 
it to learn more than a limited number of words at first. Ex- 
pect it rather to require twenty repetitions for each word, 
perhaps a hundred for each idiom, and thousands for every 
difficult pronunciation, before that is fixed correctly in the 
memory and on the tip of the tongue. The Diversification 
Table at the end of the book should be begun in the second 
or third month, and used until thoroughly familiar. 

URDU PHONETICS. 

1 6. Phonetics. The science of speech -sounds is called 
phonetics, or sometimes, phonics. These sounds are formed 
from the breath. The lungs are the bellows, from which the 
stream of breath is forced out through the vocal passages, as 
required. This breath is modified in various ways, as it passes 
out. If unchanged, it forms pure breath sounds, but if the 
vocal chords in the larynx are thrown in front of it, it becomes 
vocalized, just as the organ reed makes the air from the bellows 
resonant. Such sounds are called sonant, or voiced, while the 
unvoiced sounds are called surd, voiceless, or breath. The old 
division was vocal (vowel), sub- vocal (voiced), and aspirate (breath). 

17. Unmodified breath. This gives no sound. When 

* If your teacher is ignorant of this fact, teach him a sentence in English, 
or other unknown tongue, till he is able to give it fluently, as a demonstration. 



15 

vocalized it is usually called "voice". Vocalised breath is the 
basis of the vowels. This is formed into different vowels by 
the varying shape of the mouth. A vowel, then, may be defined 
as a sound formed with an open oral passage. As there may 
be almost unlimited shapes of the mouth cavity, so there are 
numberless vowels, just as there are countless colors; but, as there 
are seven primary colors so are there according to Bell, nine 
primary vowel positions, from which the others are formed by 
various modifications. Urdu, however, has three primary vowels 
only, a, i, u, from which the others are formed. See sec. 25. 

1 8. Consonants. If the stream of breath, as it is thrown 
out is obstructed in its passage by compression, through near 
approach of upper and lower organs, or shut off entirely by 
close contact of the organs, then we have a class of sounds 
that are called consonants. These are often wrongly defined 
as sounds that cannot be made alone (con-sonant), although 
we can make s-s-s and z-z-z, sh-sh-sh, zh-zh-zh, as long as 
our breath lasts, without associating any vowel sound at all. 
Properly, a consonant is a sound that is produced by stopping 
or squeezing the stream of breath, vocalised or not, at some 
particular point or points in the mouth. Hence our consonants 
go in pairs of breath and voice, as p and b, s and z, t and d, 
sh and zh, ch and j, t and d, k and g, kh and g, the only differ- 
ence between the two being that breath in the first is changed 
to voice in the second. Any one putting his fingers in his ears 
or laying a finger on his larynx Adam's apple and saying 
s-s-s and z-z-z alternately, can recognise the difference by the 
vibration. Care must, however, be taken not to call them by 
their names, ess and zee, but simply to give the hiss and buzz. 
The consonants that are formed by squeezing the breath till 
it produces friction are called "fricatives", or by some "continu- 
ants", as their sound is continuous. 

19. Primary Positions. There are in Urdu, and most Indian 
languages, five primary positions, where the sound is "stopped" 



16 

the lips, teeth, arch, roof, and soft palate, as shown in the 
diagram, (p. 17.) 

If the nasal passage is left open while any one of these 
stops is maintained, then we have the corresponding nasal 
letters; at the lips, m; at the teeth, n; at the arch, n, which 
is common to Punjabi and Spanish; at the palate, n, which is 
found in Punjabi, Hindi and Sanscrit; and, at the soft palate, 
n, usually written ng in English, and though occurring in Urdu 
is included in, and not distinguished from, the "nun gunna" (n), 
which latter is not usually a separate sound, but only a modifi- 
cation of a vowel sound, caused by leaving the nasal passage 
open. Many Westerners do this unconsciously, and so fail to 
distinguish between hat, is, and hai*, are. This nasality often 
arises from a catarrhal condition which prevents the complete 
closing of the passage into the nasal chamber, and so the sound 
echoes about in the nose cavity, and the speaker says things 
he does not intend. The nose ordinarily plays only the office 
of a sounding board, and the larger the nose the more resonant 
should be the voice but it is not to be kept open for talking 
through. Nasality in speaking can be tested by laying the 
finger on the side of the nose. If there is a slight tremor, the 
sound is coming through the nose. In prolonging the sounds 
of m, n, ng, the holding of the nose will soon stop the sound, 
showing the character of their formation to be nasal. Compare 
cuts XVI and XVII. 

20. Kinds of Consonants. Consonants, then, are divided 
into stops, fricatives, nasals, aspirates, and trills, as shown in 
the accompanying table. Aspirates are those stops that have 
a bit of breath following them, while trills are a mixture of stop 
and fricative. If we name the consonants by the position of 
the tongue and other organs in their formation, we have labials, 
dentals, palatals, cerebrals, and gutturals. H is a pure aspirate 
with a slight friction, now at one point in the mouth and now 
at another. 



Positional 
Names 


Names by Formation 


Stops 


Fricatives 


Nasals 


Aspirates 


Trills 


breath 


voice 


breath 


voice 


breath 


voice 


breath 


voice 


breath 


voice 


Labial 


P 


b 


* 






m 


ph 


bh 






ft 


V 


Dental 


t 


d 




n 


th 


dh 




r 


s 


Z 


Palatal 


ch 


j 


* 
sh 


zh, y 




n 


chh 


jh 




1 


Cerebral 


t 


d 








n 


th 


dh 




r 


Guttural 


k,q 


g 


* 
kh 


ain,g 




n, ng 


kh 


gh 







* h is a breath fricative, with friction now in one part, now in another part of the mouth, 
f f and v may be called labio -dentals. 



I, A lips. 

E lower front teeth 

2 lower edge of upper 
front teeth. 

3 back of upper front teeth 

4 gums above upper front 

teeth. 

5 arch of palate 

6 roof of mouth, hard pa- 

late. 

7 front of soft palate. 

8 back of soft palate. 

9 Uvula. 

10 back wall of pharynx. 

11 nasal passage. 

12 Epiglottis. 

13, 14 vocal cords. 

15 larynx, "Adam's apple". 

16 gullet. 

17 stream of breath. 

18 where its direction is 

determined by the 
uvula. 

I, O, U, Y, tongue, in differ- 
ent portions. 




iS 



Let H represent the aspirate stream of breath 
2 H represent the aspirate stream of breath divided 

V represent the voiced stream of breath 
2 V represent the voiced stream of breath divided 
N represent the nasal passage open. 

Breath and a closed nasal passage are assumed in all unless otherwise 
expressed. 



Then of the Stops Aspirates 


Continuants or 
Fricatives 


Nasals 


Al T n fA _1 "HH nil 


2 A + 2 


(A +I )VN =m 


+ I P ( A ~T L ) P u 


3 2H 


(K _L iW H fA -L. TWH Vili 


A + 2 


(I+3)VN = n 
(U+7) VN =ngor 


I + 3 = t' (I + 3 )H =th 


2V 

4 I + 3_ 
H 


n ' -rW ri rr i ?WH rivi 


1 + 3 


Trills 


O4-A ch fO4-^H rhh 


V 

s 1 + 3 , 






14. 6 = t 

: + 6)v=d 



(I + 6)H =th 
(I_j_6)VH=dh 



V 

+ 5 
V 

H 



= zh 



= kh 



(U 



g (U + 7) VH =gh 



Y+8 = q 

1 English t is I + 4 Italian t is I + 3 Turkish t is I + 5 
* This means the lower lip placed against the upper teeth, that the 
stream of breath is divided, which also keeps lips and teeth apart. ;. 



~ = Eng. th in thin 



= Eng. th in thee, but it differs 



from / in being front divided, while 1 is back divided. 

4 That is, the tip of the tongue is kept from touching the teeth by 
the breath. 

5 That is, a touching and then an opening of that position. 

6 (O + 4)NV = g f Punjabi, Spanish (I + 6)NV = n Punjabi, cerebral n. 



19 

21. Organic Basis. As compared with the vowels and 
consonants of the English language, those of the Urdu have 
several noteworthy differences, not simply in the formation of 
individual letters, but also in what Sweet calls "organic basis"; 
that is, the manner in which the vocal organs are held while 
speaking. In all India we note that the vocal organs are tense 
and rigid, and that the lips are drawn back at the corners, 
technically called "spreading", and this, in connection with the 
following characteristic, gives a harsh, tin-panny quality to 
their speech. The other basal characteristic, the low back 
tongue, gives an open throat, and thus the sound is directed 
to the upper front teeth. This focussing of the sound so far 
front, together with the excellent vibration arising from the 
teeth, gives unexcelled carrying quality and clearness to Urdu 
speech. This "spreading" is noticeable from Peshawar to 
Bombay. If my theory is correct it will be found all along 
the Arabian coast, and in all districts, where the sun is very 
bright. It is probable that the bright sunshine, which causes 
a squinting of the eyes, sympathetically draws up the corners 
of the mouths. Spreading, then is a climactic modification of 
speech found in hot arid countries. 

22. Aspiration. Urdu consonants differ from the corre- 
sponding English sounds, not only on account of the organic 
basis, but in the following particulars: p and b, k and g, differ 
from the English sounds in that they have no extra breath 
with them. Breathiness will give us the corresponding aspirates, 
ph and bh, kh and gh. Aspiration may be felt, long before 
the westerner can hear it. Hold the back of the hand 
close to the mouth, as you say pa, ba. If you can feel 
any breath on your hand, then you are saying, not pa, ba, 
but pha, bha. It may also be distinguished, if the fingers 
are held in the ears, by the hiatus that comes between the 
p and the a. The hiatus is the k. Whispered ko and whis- 
pered go should have the same sound. Whispered go seldom 



has any aspiration, and from that we may learn to make ko, 
also without aspiration. There is probably no point where we 
English speaking foreigners are more commonly at fault than 
in failing to eliminate the aspirates. This same difficulty arises 
in China, where it is said a missionary has all his life, instead 
of praying to "tien fu" heavenly father, prayed to "thien 
fu" crazy father. This method of distinguishing aspirates will 
apply also to the letters t, th; d, dh; ch, chh: j, jh; t, th; d, 
and dh. 

Sweet says that French and German do not have these 
breathy consonants. To acquire the ability to form the stops 
without aspiration, let the pupil stand erect, take a fairly full 
breath and keeping the ribs expanded, hold the breath in by 
taking a good grip on it with the throat. While thus holding the 
breath, let the pupil form p, t, ch, t, k, and after he is able 
to do this without the escape of any voice, let him say pa, ba, ta, 
da, etc. 

t 23.* (a) p and b are formed by the closing of the lips on 
breath and voice respectively, 



Cut I. 
Formulae, 

A + i = p, 
(A+ i) v =b, 
(A + I)H = p h, 
(A + i) VH = bh. 



(b) t and d though called dentals in English are not so, 
being formed against the upper gums, but in Urdu they are 
made against the teeth. In diagram p. 17, 4 is the posi- 
tion of English t, and 3 of the Urdu t. 




* N. B. Sec. 23 requires not less than an hours study in connection 
with pp. 17. 18. It cannot be understood as algebra. 



21 



Cut II. 
Formulae, 

I + 3 -= t, 
(I + 3 ) v = d, 



dh> 




(c) Urdu f is made with the upper teeth on top of the 
tensed lower lip and v is made with the lips and teeth in the 
same position, but with the same effort that one makes when 
he says the English w, or, in phonetic phraseology, accom- 
panied by "inner rounding". 



Cut III. 
A + 2 



2H 

A + 2 



= f 



= v, 



2V 
but modified 
ace. to sec. 27. 




(d) ch and j. These are simple stops formed by the blade, 
a half inch back of the tip of the tongue, not the tip, 
coming against the palate, just above the gums, rather forward 
of the English position. 



Cut IV. 

O + 4 = ch 

(0 + 4) v =j 
(O + 4) H = chh 




22 



Most phoneticists claim that ch and j are compounds of 
tsh and dzh, as x is of ks. This is not correct, as may be 
shown in several ways. T is made by the tip of the tongue. 
Now eliminate the tip by catching it under the lower teeth, 
or by protruding it, and still you can make a "ch". It has 
been heard as a single consonant by many peoples, and it has 
a corresponding nasal, n, and sibilants, sh, zh, as have, also, the 
other stop positions. The fact that it is written tch, as in watch, 
makes many, who cannot trust their own ears, feel that it must 
have a / in it. That "t" effect arises from a doubling of the ch 
sound. In India "kachcha" is written by Englishmen "kutcha". 
and we see that the English word "suggestion" is given in the 
dictionaries as "sud-jestyun" although there is no "d" in it, 
only the "shut" j, which to untrained ears gives the "d" effect. 

ch and j are "top-shut" consonants, made by having the 
"top", or blade, of the tongue, about one half inch from the 



Cut V. 
O + 4 



H 
O + 4 



= sh 
= zh, 




Cut VI. 
+ 5 




23 

point, come against the hard palate, sh, zh, are sibilants 
formed in about this same position, y a little further in. 

V (e) t and d are called cerebral because they are formed 
right up under the cerebrum, by the tip of the inverted tongue 



Cut VII. 
I + 6 = t 

(I + 6) H = th 
(I + 6) v = d 
(I + 6) VH = dh 




shutting against the roof of the mouth, 
point-stop consonants. 



They are inverted- 



(f) r is a trill made by the tip of the tongue vibrating 
against the upper gums, just at the base of the teeth. It 
takes some many months to get it. In its formation it is 
necessary that the back of the tongue be depressed, while in 
forming one of our English r's the back of the tongue rises very 
high. Take a mirror, open your mouth and try to say "r". 
Note how your tongue rises. It must be kept down, else you 
cannot make the "soft" r, which is made by the tip. With 
mirror in hand depress your tongue by yawning and then note 
the muscular sensations, when your tongue is down. Cultivate 
those till you are able to keep it down. A speedier method 
is to hold the front ringer of either hand right under the 
middle of the tongue in front of the larynx, and push up 
toward the eyes. Resist with the muscles of the tongue, and 
this will depress the back. While thus pushing and resisting, 
try to make the point r. 



Cut VIII. 

3 



H 



= s. 



V 
U3 




r is an "inverted-flap" consonant. It is formed by the 
tongue going to the "d" position the tip being far enough from 
the "roof" to allow voice to pass freely over, and then flapp- 
ing forward, with a new impulse, flat between the lower teeth. 



Cut IX. 




(g) k and g are quite like the English sounds but must 
be made carefully, without any escape of breath. 



Cut X. 




q is farther back in the throat. If you will say key, kay, 
kaw, carefully, you will note that the tongue recedes. Put 
it back one step farther and you will have the "q". 



Cut XL 
Y + 8 - q. 




(h) kh and g are formed by the friction, of breath and 
voice respectively, between the back of the tongue and the 
soft palate. Any one who can make the Scotch ch in loch, 
or the German ch in ach, can easily make the g by changing 
breath to voice, as z is made from s. 



Cut XII. 

U + 7 



H 

U + 7 
V 



kh 
g 




(i) ain is usually denoted by a dot under, or an reversed apo- 
strophe (') before or after the vowel. It is ordinarily not sounded 
in Urdu, although its presence often modifies a vowel's sound. 
Ain is not formed, as Czermak claims, simply by passing voice 
through the approximated vocal chords, but, in addition to 
this, the posterior pillars of the uvula are so drawn together 
that the passage of breath produces the fricative Hha, and 



26 



voice gives Ain. Eliminate the raised tongue from the kh and 
the g, and you will get the Hha and the Ain. 

(j) m, n, and ng, are the nasals formed from holding the 
organs in the position for b, d and g, respectively, with the 
nasal passage open. 



Cut XIII. 




(A+i) 



VN _ 



Cut XIV. 




m, 



Cut XV. 




If we hold our tongue at the j position and open the 
nasal passage as we make a sound, we get the Spanish n, 
and from the d position the Punjabi, Sanscrit, Hindi n. 

(k) n, signifying "nun gunna", is not properly a separate 
sound worthy to be ranked as a consonant, but is only a nasal 
modification of a vowel. Yet before k and g it usually denotes 
the sound of ng in sing. 



Cut XVI = a. 




Cut XVII = a N = an. 




24. Organic Basis of Urdu Defined. The organic basis 
of Urdu, in the terminology of Bell and Sweet is called 
"narrow". (I had rather say "tensed", for the organs are 
all tensely drawn.) The tongue is widened and depressed 
at the back, the throat is opened wide, the lips are drawn 
back and up from the teeth "spread" and the tone is 
focussed on the front teeth. The best English speakers and 
singers focus the stream of breath on the hard palatal arch, 
but in India both speakers and singers focus right against the 
teeth, giving a very harsh, metallic, and penetrating quality to 
their voices. 

To ascertain the organic basis of any tongue, have a 
native yawn audibly, and then, imitating him, note what are 
the positions of the various organs. The audible vowel of 
yawning is called the "natural" vowel. 

25. Vowels. Urdu vowels differ not only on account of 
the teeth focus, the spread lips, the flattened tongue and 



28 

generally tensed organs, but in another very material particular 
they are perfectly level. English long vowels invariably end 
in a glide, if final, and usually in other positions, though when 
unaccented they are often without the glide. If you will 
prolong the "ey" of they, or the "i" of machine, then 
you will find that they finish off with an upward movement 
of the tongue, giving a slight "y" effect. If you do not notice 
it, make it with opened mouth and you will see it. The same 
effect is noticed in the "ai" of aisle. In o, u, ow, as in so, 
rule, and cow, we notice another glide, but here of the lips, 
which gives a "w" effect. If the ear does not admit it, the eye 
will, if you use a mirror. In most English mouths, also, "a" 
as in father has a slight glide. It seems almost impossible 
for the English speaking races to hold a sound perfectly level, 
and finish it off without a glide. (Can this be the reason that 
in spelling bow, they, etc., the w and y, which seem needless 
to most of us, have been put on?) New and Old Englanders 
also insert a sound, as in "keow" for cow, hyer, for here, etc. 
This is counted provincial except when it comes before u, as 
in "cute", which is "rightly" (?) pronounced "kyoot", but "kyow" 
never. 

The vowels of Urdu are pure and level. 

26. Vowel Sounds, (a) a is as a in father; e as first e in 
elite; i as in machine; o as in obey; u as o in who, but without 
glides. 

(b) a is said to be like u in but, nevertheless, it is quite 
different, owing to the differing organic basis; i is similar to i 
in it; u resembles oo in good, but is unlike it, in that it has 
only "inner" rounding. See s. 27. 

(c) The two diphthongs au and ai, differ no little from 
the supposedly corresponding sounds in English of ow and 
long i, for they are composed of different elements. English ow 
(au) is composed of ah + o, but Urdu au of a (short) + o 
(short). English long i is a diphthong made up of ah + ee, but 



29 

Urdu ai has a (short) + a shortened e. Skillful singers, of 
course, prolong the first, not the second, element of these 
diphthongs, in either tongue. 

27. Rounding. This is a making of the mouth round, at 
the lips, called outer rounding, or, at the back of the tongue, 
called inner rounding. It is found in English o, u, w, and wh. 
It is exaggerated by the Scotch, as in good, and is reduced 
by Urdu speakers to simply inner rounding, where the lips 
are spread, but the back of the mouth is made round between 
the tongue and soft palate. It is of course possible to make 
o and u, with outer rounding alone, but until the pupil can 
give them with only the inner rounding he must fail to get 
the peculiar native effect. Inner rounding is the peculiar 
characteristic of the Urdu "w" or "v", as you choose to 
write it. 

28. Catching Sounds. To get a true conception of Urdu 
sounds is the first thing. To do this, either get the teacher, 
or other Hindustani, to prolong the sounds, or get him to sing. 
If you cannot get a singer, have some native, who is rather 
unfamiliar with English, repeat one of the following sentences 
after you, while you note the peculiar quality of the recurring 
vowel, (a) He, she, we eat meat, (b) Make a plate for eight 
apes, (c) Joe, own no oats, no oaks, (d) Fool, you, to woo 
a shrew, (e) Up, ugly umpire, up, up, up. (f) It hit it. (g) 
A bull could pull it full, (h) A cow now found a sow. (i) I 
might fight to night. 

It will require much and patient listening before the con- 
cept of a strange sound is correctly fixed, but until then it 
cannot be reproduced at will. Whispering the sounds, and 
hearing them whispered, will often reveal the secret of their 
difficulty. 

As we cannot hear ourselves well when we are trying to 
make these sounds correctly, it is a good idea to hold a 



30 

slate or other hard substance before our mouth, to reflect the 
sound to our outer ear. 

29. Double Letters. These give some trouble, because 
we seldom double letters in English, and in Hindustani, we 
fail to do more than give a "doubled" "stop", one and a half 
times. This Urdu doubling can best be explained by noting 
Bell's explanation of a consonant, as consisting of two parts, 
"a position and an action; the position, one of conjunction, 
and the action, one of separation, and both are necessary to 
perfect articulation". Urdu doubling, then, takes place in the 
following manner: e. g., dabbi, the lips closing for the first b, 
give the b effect, and then, opening by a new impulse, we say 
"bi"; achchha, the tongue shuts off the a by conjunction with 
the palatal arch, giving to an English ear the "t" effect, and 
then by a new impulse, we say chha. In the English words, 
book-case, and night-time, the k and t are doubled in this 
manner. 

Note, however, full doubling continuants, wholly as con- 
trasted with holy. 

30. Intonation. This is a very important subject, which 
I hope to be able to elucidate some day. So far as Urdu 
is concerned, all I can say now is, that the measure seems to 
be "staccato" with a prominence given to the last emphatic 
syllable. Most Indians, and foreigners brought up in India, 
speak their English with this intonation, and in their manner 
of making s, z, and n, betray the place of their birth. If the 
Indian and those English, who are brought up in India, are 
ever taught to speak English properly, it will be when pho- 
netics is taught in such a way that they can discriminate 
between the two modes and give each at will. Unrecognized 
brogue and intonation are difficult to acquire or cast off. 

31. A Good Ear. A good ear is not necessarily a musical 
ear, but one that can recognise differences, and enable the 
voice to imitate them. The best ears need cultivation, and 



the training, which can only come from a thorough analytic 
study of sounds and their elements. It will require the best 
ear and careful work to master all these sounds, so that they 
can be made naturally, within six months. Few will accomplish 
it under a year, and for some it may take several years of 
careful watching, before the brogue, which you brought with 
you, is content to remain in the background. 

32. Phonetic Training. What a splendid equipment such 
a training would be! When this problem is taken up as it 
ought to be, no one will be allowed to go as a missionary 
without this most necessary preparation. For those who go 
to lands whose people have no written tongue, such a training 
should be obligatory. It is high time that haphazard ways be 
displaced by time and labor saving devices. 

33. Learning to Read. After the language has been 
learned, there will be no trouble in learning to read it, if it is 
printed in Roman, or English, letters, but if it is in some strange 
character, as Persian Urdu, Hindi, Tamil, Arabic, or Russian, 
then it may take some effort. Beginning with the primer is 
simply wasting time. The best plan will be to have the 
character worked in along with these model sentences, so that 
as they are being committed, the strange forms of these words 
may be impressed on the eye. The munshi should do this 
writing clearly on the slips. If, however, this cannot be done 
(and circumstances have prevented this book being published 
on that plan), then it would seem best to go about it thus : 
Take a chapter of St. John's Gospel, and read it in the Roman 
until you are thoroughly familiar with it, then take it up in the 
character. After your copy is familiar, read out of another 
copy of the same edition. Then take another edition, or 
another version, and thus train your eye to a quick recog- 
nition of the words. Repetition will here, too, be the key to 
success. 

34. Future advancement in speaking Urdu will be partly 



32 

through unconscious imitation of those who speak Urdu with 
you, but, for those in the Punjab, whose opportunities of hearing 
good Urdu are limited, such advancement will be made by 
consciously memorizing the correct idioms and by diversifying 
them, until they are thoroughly familiar. The student will under- 
stand that this manual deals only with the simplest speech. 
To stop here will never entitle any one to be called an Urdu 
scholar. Hooper's Help to Hindustani Idioms will be useful in 
advance work. 

35. Memorizing. It has been shown that the power of the 
human memory in committing word lists such as those of a 
foreign language is very limited. One half is forgotten in an 
hour, and 60 % over night. Consequently to master the whole 
and retain 100 /o> as we demand, will necessitate a good many 
repetitions. 

36. RULES FOR THE ACCENTUATION OF URDU 
WORDS. 

1. The vowels a, e, i, o and u, and the diphthongs au and 
ai are called long; while a, i, and u are called short. 

A final syllable takes the accent only when it contains a long 
vowel followed by a consonant, or a short vowel followed by 
two consonants. 

2. Final open syllables (that end in a vowel) never take the 
accent, unless the words are roots, or foreign importations: sard, 
bard, done, but judd, Khudd, sazd (foreign), and hatd, kard 
(roots). 

3. Final closed syllables with a long vowel, take the accent: 
baydn, diler, saldm. 

4. If the penult has a long vowel, with the ultima also long, 
and closed, there will be even stress, as dsmdn,farmdn, sdis, sdmdn. 

5. If the ultima is short or open, accent is on the first pre- 
ceding long syllable: as dushman, dabbi, batti, memsdkiba, banid. 

6. As root words are accented, so are the derivatives 
accented: utarnd, utartd uiarnewdlidn. 



33 



7. Compound words retain the accent of the original words : 
Kutub-farosh , db-o-hawd, ham-khidmat, ham-jamd'at, chauki- 
ddr. 

8. An apparent exception may be found in the ad- 
verbs, ka/idn, ja/idn, yakdn, but it is likely owing to the fact 
that these are compounds of the word "haw", place, with a 
word of sub-ordinate rank, hence by rule 7, the accent is on 
"haw". 

37. If you will note the accent of the foreign words that 
have been adopted into Urdu, you will catch the key to their 
accentual measure. 

Charge 

Cheque 

Chimney (lamp) 

Double (strong) 

M. D. 

Dress 

Drill 

Dozen 

Decree (of court) 

Depot (military) 

Flannel 

Frock 

Form (to be filled) 

French 

Frank, foreigner 

Fire (a volley) 

Foot, two -foot 

rule. 
Glass 
Kirche, Kirk, 

church 
Church building 



Afsar 


Officer 


Chdva] 


Akat 


Act (of Law) 


Chik 


Aldar 


Elder 


C/timni 


Angrezi 


Anglais (English) 


Dabal 


Ap/7 


Appeal 


Ddfaar 


Ardali 


Orderly 


Dares 


Astabbal 


Stable 


Darill 


Baggi 


Buggy 


Darjan 


Baikal 


Bible 


Digri 


Bakas 


Box 


Dipu 


Bawk 


Bank 


Falalain 


Bamba 


Pump (?) water- 


Fardk 




pipe 


Fdram 


Barang 


Bearing (to pay) 


Faran^zsi 


Karuck 


Brooch 


Faraygi 


Baian 


Button [vant 


Fail 


Bera 


Bearer, head ser- 


Fut, do-fut 


Biskit 


Biscuit 




Bis/zap 


Bishop 


Gilds 


Bota\ 


Bottle 


Gir]a 


Bord 


Board 




Brtchis 


Breeches 


Gir]a-ghar 


But 


Boot 


Govfarnmat 



34 



Haspi&f/ 


Hospital 


Me jar 


Major 


Hota\ 


Hotel 


Mmat 


Minute 


Inglistdn 


England 


Mitmg-en 


Meeting-s 


jdkat 


Jacket 


Nambar 


Number 


Jel 


Jail 


Padri 


Padre (Rev.) 


]&\-khdna 


The Jail 


Pdkat 


Packet 


]arnail 


General 


Pat 


Pot, chamber 


]arnaili Sarah Grand Trunk 


Patlun 


Pantaloons 




Road 


Yaret 


Parade 


Jin 


Jean, cotton cloth 


Pu\is 


Police 


ATtfz'sar 


Caesar 


Rofaman 


Regiment 


Kd\ar 


Collar 


Rapat, rapdt 


Report 


Kam0t 


Commode 


Rap\\ 


Reporter (from 


Kamara 


Room, camera 




the village to 


Kampani 


Company 




Gov't) 


Y^anastar: 


Canister (of oil) 


Rasid 


Receipt 


Kanstabal 


Constable 


Ril 


Reel (of thread), 


Kaptdn 


Capt. (Supt. Po- 




spool 




lice) 


Sikint 


Second 


Kartus 


Cartridge 


Sa^^/tar 


Secretary 


KaunsA. 


Council 


vS//pat 


Slippers 


Koda 


Coal, charcoal 


Sapich-en 


Speech-s 


Kot 


Coat 


Sdr]an 


Sergeant 


Wdskot 


Waistcoat 


Sartif^/ 


Certificate 


Lains 


Lines (of police) 


Sharut 


Cheroot 


Lal/z 


Lantern 


S/tisham 




Lamp 


Lamp 


(kothi) 


Sessions (house) 


Lat 


Lord 


Siga/r/ 


Cigarette 


L^char 


Lecture 


S\mint 


Cement 


Lekchamr 


Lecturer 


Tamdtar 


Tomato 


Mdchaz 


Matches 


Tam<5ku 


Tobacco 


Mani Adar 


Money Order 


Tamtam 


tumtum, dog- cart 


Mar# 


Market 


77zz'etar 


Theater 


yiaskin 


Machine 


Tz'kas 


Tax 



35 



Tin 


Tin, can. 


Kd\a] 


College 


Warant 


Warrant (for ar- 


Hedmdsta 


Headmaster 




rest) 


Tzchar 


Teacher 


Ya/zzidi 


Jew (term of 


Tzchari 


Teaching 




abuse, also) 


Kdpi 


Copy-book 


Ya/zz2din 


Jewess 


Dartl 


Drill 


Rel 


Railway 


Sale? 


Slate 


Relze/tfi 


Ry. Dept. 


Pinsal 


Pencil 


Isteshan 


Station 


Nib 


Nib, pen-point 


THcat 


Ticket, postage 


Hauldar 


Pen-holder 




stamp or visit- 


Ish/zi/ 


Stool 




ing card 


Binsh 


Bench 


Plet/aram 


Platform 


Rul /msal 


Lead pencil 


7>zjin 


Engine 


Rul 


Ruler 


Tern 


Time 


jugrdfiya 


Geography 


Fas&tds 


First Class 


Aljafaa 


Algebra 


Sakanklds 


Second Class 


Arithw^tik 


Arithmetic 


7;ztar 


Intermediate 


Ash/aw/ 


Assistant 


Thirds 


Third Class 


In^/z/tar 


Inspector 


Gdrad 


Guard 


Pas (ho jana) 


To pass 


Lainklir 


Line Clear 


Fel (hona) 


To fail 


Sangal daun 


Signal Down 


Bi E 


B. A. 


Shant 


Shunt 


Em E 


M. A. 


7>z>ak 


Brake 


Kirkat 


Cricket 


Buk karna 


To book 


Bat 


Bat 


/teal 


Parcel 


Aut 


Out 


Is^zi/ 


School 


7v!^e-buk 


Log-book 


Hae \skul 


High School 


Hal-^mara 


Hall 


Loar Parai- 




Fu/ba\ 


Football 


mari 


Lower Primary 


Chif Kot 


Chief Court 


^4/par Parai- 




Kot Ins/zVtar 


Court Inspector 


mari 


Upper Primary 


Dip\\ 


Deputy 


Midal 


Middle Dept. 


Kamzs/inar 


Commissioner 


Intrdns 


Entrance 


Kalattar 


Collector 








3* 



- 36 ~ 



Ka^z/ti Committee Sa-wz'ti Society 

Mimbar Member BarzVztar Barrister 

Siti Puls City Police Jaj Judge 

38. Indian Words in Common English Use. 



Jungle 


Jangal 


Attar^orOtto, Itr, essence, ex- 


_t uMa 

Cooly 


Qu\i 


of roses 


tract 


Typhoon 


Tu/tf7z, a storm 


Pyjamas 


Pde]dma, leg- 


Monsoon 


Mausxn, season 




clothes 


Faker, fakeer 


Fa^z'r, a holy 


Punkha 


Pankha, fan 




beggar 


Dacoity 


Da&zz'tf, robbery 


Loot 


Lutr\a, to plun- 


Dacoit 


Dakait, Ddku, 




der 




highway rob- 


Bazaar 


Bazar 




ber 


Bungalow 


Bang\a 


Thug 


Thag, assassin 


Bucksheesh 


"Bakhshish, gift 


Vizier 


Wa^zV, prime mi- 


Howdah 


Hauda, elephant 




nister 




saddle 


Kismet 


Qismat, fate 


Mahout 


Ma/ywat, ele- 


Nabob 


Naivdl>, ruler 




phant driver 


Punjab 


Pa.njd& 


Sultan 


Sultan 


Cowry-shell 


Kauri, a shell 


Hooka 


Hugqa 


Sepoy 


SipdM, soldier 


Moslem 


Mussalmdn 


Curry (and 




Mohamme- 


Mohammadi 


rice) 


Kdri, spiced meat 


dan 




Mogul 


Mugal, Afghan 


Hindu 


Hindu 




family 


Kohinoor 


Koh-i-nur (mt. of 


Koran 


Quran, Moslem 




light) 




Bible 



39. Indian Words in ordinary Anglo-Indian Use. 
Shasters Skdsira, Hindu Syce Saw, groom 

Bible Ayah 

Durbar Dar&z^ court 

assembly Khit 

Gharry Gdri, carriage, 



cart 



Chit 



Aya, nurse- 
maid 

Khidmat^r, 
waiter 

letter 








37 








Beesty 


Bi/u'sMi, water- 


Ryot 


Ra'z'yat, subject 




, 




man (ordinary 




(of a king) 




^ 




educated na- 


Kutcherry 


Kac/ia/iri, court- 




j 




tive says 




house 




*<i 




bhishti) 


Kutcha 


Kachcha, poorly 




^ ^ 


Almaira 


Alw<zn,wardrobe, 




made, unripe 




^^ 




cup-board 


Pucka 


Pakka, well made 







Deccan 


Dakkhan, the 


Nulla 


Ndla, a ditch 





Xi ^ 




south 


Moulvie 


* Maulavi, Moslem 




^^ 


Maund 


Man, forty ser, 




teacher 




^ ^ 


Seer 


83 Ibs. 
Ser, two pounds, 


Chutnee 


Chatni, hot pick- 
les 


$j X " 

sn^ 




one qt. 


Rajah 


Rd]a, king 


. 
x> 


.V 

^ 4. 


Chittack 


Chha/tf/z^, 1/16 


Allah 


Alia, God 




.$'<*) 




of ser, 2 oz. 


Nautch 


Nach, dance 


-'' 

- 


^ ^ 

V Q 


Topy 


Topi, hat, cap 


Urdu(Oordoo) Urdu, camp 



^ 


V ty 


Sola topy 


Sun helmet 


Mussock 


Maskak, water- 


^ 


^ 


Rupee 


Ru/#(?, 1 6 annas 




skin 






Anna 


Ana, a penny, 


Veds 


F^da, Hindu Writ 









two cents 


Zamindary 


Zamin^zn, 


- 
'^ 


! <& 


Pice 


Paisa, 1/4 anna 




Ranch 


K 


V 

N 


Pie 


Pdi, I/ 12 anna 


Lakh, Lac 


Lakh 100,000 


S 

^a 


6 

^ 


Tola 


Tola, weight of 


Carore 


l&aror, I O OOO OOO 


-o 


. 

^ 




rupee 


Mela 


Mela, a fair 


VJ 




Durry 


Dari, cotton car- 


Chaprassy 


Chapnzsi, servant 








pet 


Chowkidar 


Chaukiddr, 






Charpoy 


C7/rpaf,bedsted, 




watchman 








i. e. a four- 


Lumberdar 


Lambar^?/-, 








poster 




headman 






Teapoy 


Tifldi, 3 footed 


Dooly 


Doli, palankeen 








table 


Munsift 


Judge of small 






Godown 


Goddm, store- 




court 








house 


T/zana 


T/tdna, police 






Dufter 


Daftar, office 




station 







Thdn&ddr 



Tahyz/ 



Putwaree 



Dep. Inspector 
Police 

A county, town- 
ship 

County officer, 
revenue collec- 
tor 

Patt&dri, village 
land recording 
officer 



Chowney 



Mufussil 



Ekka 

Kotwdl 
Kotzvdli 
Tiffin 



CMdoni, military 

station 

Mufassil, out- 
lying, as oppo- 
sed to city 
Efcka., one horse 

cart 

Chief of Police 
Police Station 
Tiffm, lunch 



EAR AND TONGUE EXERCISES. 

Directions for Study. Have the moonshee (munshi) pro- 
nounce the Oordoo (Urdu) words until you can catch them 
clearly. He may have to repeat them eight or ten times be- 
fore you are ready to try even to give them. Cultivate the ability 
of careful accurate hearing. Watch his lips and his tongue. 
Have him put a little stick, half an inch long, between his jaw 
teeth, so that you may see the working of his tongue* This 
is especially important in learning the cerebral sounds. Have 
him open his mouth widely, when he gives the a and a sounds, 
and note how the prolonged sounds ring against the teeth. 
Observe how, when he says khana, and kana, the h of the first 
comes against the back of your hand, when held close to his 
mouth. Practice these exercises for fifteen or twenty minutes, 
twice daily, for the first two months. When you are able to 
recognise the differences, as you watch the munshi's mouth, try 
to catch them when his back is turned. Get others to give you 
the same sounds. When the munshi tells you that you have 
these sounds very well, test him by making mistakes intention- 
ally. Make a list from the exercises, one word from the t's, two 
from the aspirates, etc., and dictate them to him. You can 
easily tell by his writing whether he has told you the truth. 



39 



Yet it may be that he recognises, not the sound, but your 
facial contortion, so try them on some one else. 

Do not expect too much of yourself, but expect to master 
these not sooner than six months, and that, perhaps, it may 
take a good while longer. Never despair. Never get beyond 
listening to the exact words that fall from people's mouths. 
When you find that your temper is rising too high, at the 
munshi's, or your own, stupidity, change to something else. 
When you are reading, do not allow more than two or three 
corrections of any one pronunciation. If you cannot get the 
vowel sounds, try to imitate the sound which the native makes 
in yawning audibly. Take a mirror and throw your tongue 
violently back and forth; or sing a-a-a, keeping the tongue 
low down at the back. Until it is low, you cannot give the 
vowels correctly. Practise the exercise of sec. 22. 



Exercises for Ear and Tongue? 
Wuh ata hai. (a) He is coming. 

(b) That is meal (of wheat). 

(a) She (this one) is crying. 

(b) This is bread. 

(a) That is a saw. 

(b) He is obstinate. 

(c) She is coming. 

(a) This is pulse (dal). 

(b) This is dal (d). 

(c) This is a shield. 

(a) Those horses are coming. 

(b) Those whites (soldiers) are 
coming. 

(a) That is dinner. 

(b) He is one-eyed. 

(c) That is the compartment. 



'I. (a) 

(b) Wuh ata hai. 

2. (a) Yih roti hai. 
(b) Yih roti hai. 

3. (a) Wuh ari hai. 

(b) Wuh ari hai. 

(c) Wuh a rahi hai. 

4. (a) Yih dal hai. 

(b) Yih dal hai. 

(c) Yih dhal hai. 

5. (a) Wuh ghore a rahe hain. 
(b) Wuh gore a rahe hai. 

6. (a) Wuh khana hai. 

(b) Wuh kana hai. 

(c) Wuh khana hai. 



The meaning also must not be neglected. 



40 



7. (a) Wuh bari hai. 

(b) Wuh bari hai. 
s (c) Wuh bhari hai. 

(d) Wuh barhi hai. 

8. (a) Yih kha li hai. 

(b) Yih khali hai. 

(c) Yih kali hai. 

9. (a) Wuh gol hai. 
(b) Wuh gol hai. 

10. (a) Gul kyun kiya? 

(b) Gul kyun kiya? 

11. Note the difference between 
English and Urdu words. 



(a) He (She) is free. 

(b) She is big. 

(c) She (It) is full. 

(d) She has grown, increased. 

(a) (He, or, She) has eaten 
this. 7 . 

(b) This is empty. 

(c) This (female) is black. 

(a) He is or, That is round. 

(b) That is a crowd. 

(a) Why did you put it out 
(lamp).? 

(b) Why did you make a noise? 

the sounds of the contrasted 



Mali, gardener Molly 

Billi, cat Billy 

Kar, do Cur 

Par, on Purr 

Dur, far Doer 

Dak, post, mail Dock 

Pet, belly Pate 

Pit, bile Pit 

Ho, be Hoe 

Pul, a bridge Pull 



Hai, is 
Ek, one 
Sach, truth 
Mili, got 
Mez, table 
Sais, groom 
Faram, corruption 
Pur, as Nurpur 
Lo, take 
Do, give 



High 
Ache 
Such 
Milly. 
Maize 
Syce 
of form 
Poor 
Low 
Dough 



Doubled Letters. 

12. (a) Yih mera galla hai. (a) This is my flock. 

(b) Yih mera gala hai. (b) This is my neck. 

(c) Yih mera galla hai. 

</ 13. (a) Larka leta hai. 



(b) Larka leta hai. 



(c) This is my grain. 

(a) The boy takes (it) or is 
taking it. 

(b) The boy is lain down. 



15- 



(a) 

(b) 
(c) 
(d) 

(a) 
(b) 
(c) 
(d) 



16. (a) 

(b) 
(c) 



17- 



18. 



19. 



(a) 
(b) 

(c) 

(a) 
(b) 
(c) 
(d) 
(e) 
(0 
(a) 

(b) 



Is ko do dena. 
Is ko dho dena. 
Is ko duh dena 
Is ko dho dena 

Mere pas khara hai. 
Mere pas khara hai. 
Mere pas kara hai. 
Mere pas kara (Pun- 
jabi) hai. 

Yih 'aurat khati hai. 
Yih 'aurat katti hai. 
Yih c aurat katti hai. 

Larke deke gaye. 
Larke dekhke gaye. 
Larke dekhe gaye. 

Pata mujh ko do. 
Patta mujh ko do. 
Patta mujh ko do. 
Pattha mujh ko do. 
Mera kapra phata hai. 
Mera. kapra phatta hai. 

Yih bakra mera bakhra 

hai. 

Ihuda khaliq hokar 

khud hamari khidmat 

karta hai. 



20. (a) c Aurate sath hai. 

(b) c Aurate sat hai. 

(c) c Aurate sath hain. 

21. (a) Wuh "gol" kahta hai. 

(b) Wuh "gol" kahta hai. 

(c) Wuh "ghol" kahta hai. 



(a) Give him two. 

(b) Wash this. 

(c) Milk this (cow). 

(d) Carry this away. 

(a) I have the genuine. 

(b) He is standing by me. 

(c) I have a bracelet. 

(d) I have the bran (of gram). 

(a) This woman eats. 

(b) This woman spins. 

(c) This woman bites. 

(a) The boys gave and went. 

(b) The boys saw and went. 

(c) The boys were seen. 

(a) Give me the information. 

(b) Give me the leaf. 

(c) Give me the lease. 

(d) Give me the young one. 

(e) My garment is torn. 

(f) My garment is tearing. 

(a) This he-goat is my portion. 

(b) God although (lit. being) 
Creator does himself serve 
us. 

(a) The women are along. 

(b) There are seven women. 

(c) There are sixty women. 

(a) He says "gol" (round). 

(b) He says "gol" (crowd). 

(c) He says "ghol" (dissolve). 



22. (a) Wuh chizen gharon men (a) Those things were lying in 



par! rahin. 



the houses. 



(b) Wuh chizen gharow men (b) Those things were lying in 



pari rahi#. 



the water jars. 



(c) Wuh chizen garhow men (c) Those things were lying in 



pari rahi;*. 



the forts. 



23. (a) Ismit Sahib daure gaye (a) Mr. Smith has gone to camp 



ham. 



(itinerating). 



(b) Ismit Sahib daure gaye (b) Mr. Smith has gone running, 
haiw. 



24. (a) Admi chhappar men 
baitha tha. 



(a) A man was sitting(lit. seated) 
in the hut. 



(b) Admi chhappar men (b) A man was sitting in the 

pond. 

(c) A man was sitting in the 
hut (yesterday). 



baitha tha. (P) 
(c) Admi chhappar men 
baithta tha. 



Note that it is "baitha tha", not "baitha ta", nor baithta td, but thd. 

25. (a) Us ne bari minnat ki 

thi. (a) He pleaded very hard, 

(b) Us ne bari mihnat ki thi. (b) He worked very hard. 



26. (a) Wuh gayi hai. 

(b) Wuh gayi hai#. 

(c) Wuh gaye hai. 

(d) Wuh gae hai. 

(e) Wuh gae hain. 

27. (a) Wuh kaha?z para hai? 



28. (a) Wuh thatti hai. 

(b) Wuh tatti hai. 

(c) Wuh tatti hai (P.). 



(a) She has gone. 

(b) They (women) have gone. 

(c) They (men) have gone. 

(d) That is a cow. 

(e) Those are cows, 

(a) Where is it (or, he) lying? 
(b) Wuh kahaw parha hai? (b) Where did (you) read it? 

(a) Thatisthe"thatti"-outcaste 
quarter. 

(b) That is a screen (privy, 
latrine). 

(c) That is warm. 



43 



Be careful, when you want to go to the first, not to do as 
I did, ask for the second, and get the reply, "There is no 
"tatti" in the villages". 

(a) He put the lo-lb. weight on 
the carpet 



29. (a) Us ne dhari dari par 

dhari. 

(b) Kaf aur Qaf men kya 
farq hai? 

(c) Ham Khuda ke ham- 
khidmat hai#. 

(d) Us ki qabr ki khabar 
deni chahiye. 

30. (a) Bat (a) Thing, matter, 

res. 

Bhat Rice, boiled. 
Bat* Path, way. 
Bhat* A bard. 

(c) Tarik (c) Dark, night). 
Tahrik Instigation. 
Tarikh Date (of month). 



(b) What is the difference be- 
tween k and q? 

(c) We are God's co-workers. 

(d) One ought to give news of 
his grave. 



(b) Bag 
Bhag 

Bag 
Bagh 

(d) Tori 
Thori 
Tori 



(e) Batti (e) Wick, lamp. (f) Korf 

Bati Twisted. Kori 

Bhati Furnace. Korhi 

Batti Small weight. * Khori 

g) Sare (g) All (h) Kira 

Sare Let him burn (P) Khira 

Sarhe 1/2 more than Kirha* 

(i) Pari (i) A fairy (j) Der 

Parhi Read (past, part) Derh 

Pari Lying (fem. part) Drier 

Phari* Buckler 

* Not in frequent use. 



(b) Rein. 
Fortune; 
(verb), Run. 
Garden. 
Tiger. 

(d) Torn. 
A little. 
Turnip like 
plant. 

(f) Score, twenty. 
New* unused. 
A leper. 
An alley. 

(h) Worm, insect 
Cucumber 
Wormy 

(j) Lateness 

One and one half 
Pile, heap 



44 



(k) Dana 
Dana 



(k) Wise 
Grain 



(1) Sina 
Sina 



(1) To sew 
Breast 



(m)Usselado.(m)Bring it from 

him 

Use la do. Bring it and 
give it to him 

(o)Bachcha (o) Child 
Bacha Escaped 

Kam Work 

Kham * Immature 

(q) Bura (q) Evil 

Bhura Brown, earth 

colour 
Old 
Sawdust 



(n) Ham men (n) In us 



Hame 

Tumhew 

Turn 

(p) Banna 
Bana 
Kam 
Kham 

(r) Bheri 
Ben 
Beri 
Berhi* 



To us 
To you 
In you. 

(p) To be made 
Is made 
Little 
Curved 

(r) Ewe, sheep. 
Boat,handcuff 
Punjab plum 
Crooked 



Burha 

Bura 

Men' burhi bheri bhuri ben men berhi beri ke bare bure 
patte kha rahi thi. My old ewe was eating the very bad leaves 
of the crooked "ber" in a brown boat. 



(s) Ka 


(s)0f 


(t) Ra 


(t) Name of r 


Kah 


Grass 


Rah 


Way, path 


Ja 


Go 


Ma 


Mother 


Jah 


Grandeur 


Mah 


Month 



Many other words are found in the language, which are 
thus distinguished by only one sound, but if these are well 
mastered, so that the pupil can give them without facial con- 
tortion, and in such a way that the untutored native readily 
catches them, he will have no difficulty with any others that 
he may run across. 

It will be best if the munshi puts these single words in 
simple sentences as i. 

* Not in frequent use. 



45 - 

MODEL INDUCTION SENTENCES. 

LESSON I. PAHLA SABAQ. 

I. Bahut achchha khana taiyar karna chahiye. 

very good food ready to-do is-desired. 

[You] must get a good dinner ready. 

Directions for study. Write off the above three lines on 
a stiff slip of paper. Have the munshi utter the clause in two 
parts, as printed, of three words each. Learn it thus in two 
"breaths", not from the printed page but from the munshi's 
mouth. It may be necessary to say each part at first, word 
and word about. 1 Keep your eyes on the English translation, 
so as to carry the idea of the clause in your mind. Work 
away at this repetition, until you can say the six words without 
pausing. Now, continue to say them alternately, with the 
munshi, noting as much as possible his expression and into- 
nation, and trying to imitate them. When you can say them 
fluently alone, then begin to try to get up to a speed of 300 
syllables per minute. Your first lesson may not give you more 
than the ability to repeat them alone, for it should not last 
longer than a half hour, lest it weary you. After a rest you 
may take it up again. One week is not too long to spend 
on lesson I, with reviews continued over another week or two, 
until it simply cannot be forgotten. There is nothing in it that 
you can afford not to get. Slow, you may think, but it will 
often be found that what one has learned one day has complet- 
ely slipped the mind by the next. The Derivative Sentences 
should be so well in hand, that you can instantly express 
the ideas, as well as understand them when you hear them. 
Write them off, too, on slips of paper, and learn them in the 
following manner: Repeat I until you can give it at the above 
rate. Now take up 2. Repeat it in conjunction with I, and I. 

i Write only the English translation or the other side of the slip and 
later use only that. 



- 46 - 



When you can give the three, twelve times in a minute, then 
you can take up 4. Repeat 4 thus, I and 4, i and 4, 2 and 4, 
3 and 4. Get the whole list of sentences so that you can give 
them in regular, inverse, any, order, at this same rate of speed. 1 
If you lay them aside for a few days, you will find that the 
speed test can not be met. One's ability in mastering com- 
binations of strange sounds is very limited. See p. 59, Speed 
Tests. 

Vocabulary. 

11. Kya? 

12. Han 

13. Nahi;z 

14. Ap 



1. Bahut Much, very 

2. Achchha 
Achchhi Good 

3. Khana 

4. Taiyar 

5. Kar-na 

6. Chahiye 



Food, dinner 

Ready 

To do, make 15. Ko 

Is wished, ought 16. Thora 

7. Sahib Sir, Gentleman, 17. To 

Mr 1 8. Hi 

8. Memsahiba Mrs. 

9. Missahiba Miss 19. Yih 
10. Hai Is. 20. Wuh 

Derivative Sentences. 



What? 

Yes 

No 

You (never to ser- 
vants) 

To 

Little 

indeed 

indeed, emphatic 
particle 

This 

That. 



1. Khana taiyar hai? or, 
Kya, khana taiyar hai? 

2. Taiyar hai. or, Han, taiyar 
hai. 

3. Khana achchha hai? 

4. Achchha hai, or, 
achchha hai. 



1. Is dinner ready? or What, 
is dinner ready? 

2. It is ready, or, Yes, it is 
ready. 

3. Is dinner good? 

4. It is good, or, Yes, it is 



good. 

1 I have heard it suggested that it is easier to memorize by threes. 
After tiring of I, take up I, then when you have wearied of that, try 2 for 
15 minutes and then come back to I. It is worth while trying this method 
at first. Repeat clause I six times in 15 seconds. Repeat the whole lesson 
in 40 seconds. 



47 



5. Bahut achchha hai. 

6. Memsahiba,khana taiyar hai. 

7. Bahut achchha. 

8. Khana chahiye? 

9. Ha, chahiye. 

10. Khana taiyar karna. 
n. Bahut achchha, sahib. 

12. Bahut achchha khana 
chahiye. 

13. Achchha, memsahiba. 

14. Khana taiyar karq. 

15. Khana bahut hai? 

1 6. Ha;z, bahut hai. 

17. Khana bahut achchha hai? 

1 8. NahiX achchha nahm hai? 

19. Khana ap ko chahiye? 

20. Nahfo chahiye. 



5. It is very good. 

6. Madam, dinner is ready. 

7. Very well. 

8. Do you wish dinner? 

9. Yes, I do. 

10. Get dinner ready. 

11. Very well, sir. 

12. I want a good dinner. 



13. 
14. 

IS- 
1 6. 

17- 
1 8. 
19. 
20. 



21. Apko bahut khana chahiye? 21. 

22. Nahi, bahut nahirc chahiye, 22. 
thora chahiye. 

23. Khana to bahut thora hai. 23. 

24. Apko thora khana chahiye? 24. 

25. Ha#, thora hi chahiye. 25. 

26. Khana thora hai? 26. 

27. Thora? Hai hi nahm. 27. 

28. Sahib ham? 28. 

29. Haw, hai;z. 29. 

30. Hai nahi/z. 30. 

31. Yih kya hai? 31. 

32. Wuh kya hai? 32. 

33. Kya hai? 33. 



Certainly, madam. 
Get dinner ready. 
Is there dinner enough? 
Yes, plenty. 

Is the dinner very good? 
No, it is not good. 
Do you require dinner? 
No, I don't. (It is not requir- 
ed.) 

Do you wish a good deal 
of food? 

No, I don't want a lot, only 
a little. 

There's very little dinner. 
Do you want butlittle dinner? 
Yes, just a little. 
Is the food short? 
Short? There is none at all. 
Is the gentleman of the 
house in? 

Yes, he is (lit. They are). 
He is not, It is not, She is not. 
What is this? 
What is that? 
What is it? 



48 - 



LESSON II. DUSRA SABAQ. 
II. Apni roti jaldi khao. 

own bread speed [with] eat. 

Eat your food quickly. 

Directions. Write the three lines on one slip. Have the 
munshi repeat them till you are able to give them alone, and 
then take them up in connection with clause I. Acquire speed 
up to nine repetitions of this four-word clause in fifteen seconds. 
Watch your watch. Write English on the reverse and use 
that only, after the first day. 



Vocabulary. 

Apna Own-referring to Gosht, 

apnf the supject of the 

apne verb my, his 

their, your etc. 
bread, food, 
quickness 

eat-you Karf bhat, 

to come thori 



Roti 

Jaldi 

Kha-o 

Ana 

Rona to cry 

Ata, ati, ate coming 

Rota, roti, rote crying 

Huzur Your Presence 

Janab Your Honour 



achchha Meat. 
Alu, achchhe Potatoes 
Chapati, 

achchhi 
Ata, thora 



Bread, loaf, cake 
Meal 



Curry (&) rice 



Chhbti Haziri Little breakfast 
"tea and toast" 

Bari Haziri "Big" breakfast 
Haziri Attendance 

Bhi too 



The adjectives by their endings in a, i, and e, show the 
gender. It is not, however, necessary to remember that gosht 
is masculine, roti feminine, etc., but only to associate the a, i, 
or e ending with the particular word. 

Derivative Sentences. 

1. Roti khao. i. Eat bread. 

2. Khana khao. 2. Eat dinner (food). 

3. Kya, roti taiyar hair 3. Is the bread ready. 



49 



4- Ha, huzur, taiyar hai. 

5. Kya, roti achchhi hai? 

6. Haw, janab, bahut achchhi 
hai. 

7. Yih roti to bahut achchhi 
hai. Kya wuh bhi achchhi 
hai? 

8. Khana taiyar karo. 

9. Roti taiyar karo. 

10. Jaldi karo. 

11. Khana jaldi khao. 

12. Khana jaldi taiyar karo. 

13. Khana jaldi chahiye. 

14. Roti jaldi chahiye. 

15. Bahut thori roti chahiye. 

1 6. Khana jaldi khana chahiye. 

17. Roti bahut nahiVz hai, thori 
hai. 

1 8. Apni roti taiyar karo. 

19. Ap ko ek hi roti chahiye? 

20. NahiVz, mujh ko do, tin 
rotiaw chahiye^. 

21. Yihi roti sahib ko chahiye. 

22. Khansamaw, chapatiaw 
taiyar karo. 

23. Ata nahi;z, memsahiba. 

24. Achchha, bazar se lao. 



4. Yes, sir, it is ready? 

5. Is the bread good? 

6. Yes, sir, it is very good. 

7. This bread is very, good, 
indeed. Is that good, too? 

8. Get dinner ready. 

9. Get the bread ready (or, 
the meal ready). 

10. Hurry up. 

11. Eat dinner quickly. 

12. Get dinner ready quickly. 

13. I want dinner quickly. 

14. The bread is needed quickly. 

15. Very little bread is needed. 

1 6. (I, you, or, he) must eat 
dinner quickly. 

17. There is not much bread, 
only a little. 

1 8. Get your own bread (food) 
ready. 

19. Do you want only one loaf? 

20. No, I want two or three 
loaves. 

21. The master wants only this 
bread. 

22. Make some "chappaties", 
cook - /-Kx-t^v <*-i+*r<+ 

23. There is no meal, madam. 

24. Well, get (bring) some from 
the market. 



Vocabulary. ' 



Misri, thori Sugar 

Chini, thori Sugar 

Cha (or, chae) Tea 

Cha achchhi 

Dudh, thora Milk 

Namak, thora Salt 

Pani, achchha Water 

Gilas Glass, tumbler 

25. Kya alu achchhe haiw? 

26. Ha#, achchhe hai. 

27. Ap achchhe hai? 

28. Turn achchhe ho? 

29. Cha le jao, achchhi nahiw 
hai. 

30. Yih misri le lo, achchhi hai. 

31. Do gilas dudh hame 
chahiyew. 

32. Thori chini do. 

33. Achchha gosht ham ko do. 

34. Yih namak thora hai. 

35. Kari bhat dikhao. 

36. Pani do. 



Do 

Tin 

Do 

Lao, le ao 

Lo, le lo 

Le-jao 

Jao 

Dikhao 



Two 

Three 

Give 

Bring 

Take 

Take away 

Go 

Show, pass. 



25. Are the potatoes good? 

26. Yes, they're good. 

27. Are you well? (never "ap" 
to a servant.) 

28. Are you well? (to an inferior) 

29. Take the tea away, it is 
not good. 

30. Take this sugar, it's good. 

31. We want two glasses (of) 
milk. 

32. Give (me) a little sugar. 

33. Give us good meat. 

34. This is too little salt. 

35. "Pass" me the curry and rice. 

36. Give me (some) water. 



Grammar. 

Note that the declarative and interrogative forms of sen- 
tences are often on paper, though differing in intonation, the 
same, yet the latter may have a "kya", "what?" The infinitive 
khana, is from the root "kha", to which add "o", for the impe- 
rative "khao"; and so kar-na gives kar-o. Thus the imperative, 

1 The best way to learn the genders of nouns is to associate them with 
an adjective or verb in a or i, and not try to remember them as "masculine" 
or "femimine". 



r r __ 

"' 

I 

!ao is from lana, dikhao from dikhana, jao from jana. Do and 
lo, are from the roots, de-na, le-na, so that de-o, le-o are con- 
tracted to, do, lo, in Urdu, but not in Punjabi. Ana "to come", 
rona "to weep" give the imperative forms ao, ro, though we 
occasionally find rod. 

Adjectives agree with their nouns so that we have, achchha 
khana, thora dudh, achchhi roti, thori misri, and in the mas. 
plural, achchhe alii. In the fern, pi., we add for nouns in f, as 
roti, "arc", making rotiaw, while chahiye in the plural becomes 
chahiyew, for either gender. 

Language Practice. Take the various articles mentioned, 
or else write off the various words on slips, and let the munshi 
ask as he hands the slip, or points to the article, "Yih kya 
hai", and the pupil answer "Yih roti hai", "Yih cha hai", 
"Yih dudh hai", etc. etc., until all the words come readily. 

2nd. Let the words gosht, namak, dudh, pani, ata be 
substituted, one by one, for khana, in I 3, 4, 12, 13 and 33, 34. 

3rd. Write out on slips the words roti, kari, bhat, chapati, 
tiffin, chhoti haziri, bari haziri, misri, chini, cha, and substitute, 
one at a time, in sentences II 3, 5, 6, 12, 13, 29, noting the 
adjective is achchhi. 

Remember the rule: "Nothing is learned till it comes readily". 
If you pick up any other words, learn them. Thoroughness 

conquers. 

LESSON III. TISRA SABAQ. 

III. Kyuwki aj mere lie because to-day for me 

for to-day my for 

Learn to say in one breath, alternating, after able to say 
it alone, with a few of the previously learned sentences. 

Note that "lie", ending in e, takes the "e" sound in the pre- 
ceding word, and always requires it, if possible. Mere in other 
relations may be merd, or meri, yih meri roti hai, yih mera 
khana hai, yih mere alii hai;z. So we have apni roti, apna 
khana, apne lie. 

4* 



Directions to the munshi (who should see to it that the 
pupil uses these and not English). 

1. Phir bolo, or, Phir kahiye I. Say (it) again, 
(polite). aw f Set fat; 

2. Ahista A bolo. 2. 

3. Bat meri samajh men nahiw 3. 
ati. 



4. Samajh men ai? 4. 

5. Thik hai? 5. 

6. Haw, thfk hai. Nahin, thik 6. 
nahifl hai. 

7. Wuhlafz phir kaho (kahiye). 7. 

8. Is ka talaffuz mujh se nahi 8. 
hota. 

9. Pata 



10. Bas. 

11. Bas karo. 

12. Thahr jao. 

Derivative 

1 . Jaldi karo, kyu^ki mere liye 
bahut achchhi roti taiyar 
karni chahiye. 

2. Jaldi karo kyuwki mera bhf 
khana taiyar karna hai. 

3. Apne liye roti taiyar karo. 

4. Achchhi bat, janab. 

5. Kya, yih men roti hai? 

6. Ha, yih ap ki roti hai. 



10. 
ii. 
12. 



Speak slowly. 

I don't understand. (The 

matter into my understand- 

ing comes not.) 

Did you understand? (Did 

it come in?) 

Is it correct? 

Yes, it's right. No, it's not 

correct. 

Say that word again. 

I can't pronounce this. 

I don't know. (There is no 

trace.) 

Enough. That will do. 

Stop. 

Wait. 



Sentences. 

1. Hurry up for you must get 
some very good bread 
ready for me. 

2. Be quick, for my dinner, 
too, is to be gotten ready. 

3. Get bread ready for your- 
self. 

4. Very well, sir. (Good word, 
sir.) 

5. Is this my bread? 

6. Yes, this is your bread. 



53 



7. Kya wuh roti achchhi hai? 

8. Yih sahib ki roti hai. 

9. Kya, wuh gilas ap ka hai? 

10. Memsahiba ki roti kahaw 
hai? 

11. Aj ke lie roti hai? 

12. Ha (aj ke lie) bahut hai. 

13. Ap ke lie roti bahut hai. 

14. Ap ka khana taiyar hai. 

15. Ap ke khane ke lie char 
rotia ham. 

1 6. Bas hai. 

17. Turn apni roti jaldi khao, 
kyu#ki do sahibo ke lie 

f khana taiyar karna hai. 

1 8. Aj panch sahib logon ke 
lie khana taiyar karna hai. 

19. Bazar jana hai, gosht lana 
hai, khana pakana hai, ba- 
hut kam karna hai. 

20. Khane ke lie do rotian leao. 

21. Cha ke lie dudh misri le ao. 

22. Wuh rotiaw bahut achchhi 
haira. 

23. Aur roti lao, kyu^ki yih 
thori hai. 

24. Ap ko dudh aur roti, dono, 
chahiyeTz? 



7. Is that bread good? 

8. This is sahib's bread (of 
the gentleman). 

9. Is that glass yours? 

10. Where is the madam's 
bread? 

11. Is there bread [enough] for 
to-day? 

12. Yes, there's plenty (for to- 
day). 

1 3.Thereis enough bread foryou. 

14. Your dinner is ready. 

15. There are four loaves for 
your dinner. 

1 6. It's enough. (They are 
enough.) 

17. Eat your own food quickly, 
for dinner must be gotten 
ready for two gentlemen. 

1 8. Dinner must be gotten ready 
for five sahib log (Eu- 
ropeans) to-day. 

19. (I have) to go to the shops, 
to bring meat, to cook the 
dinner to do a lot of work. 

20. Bring two loaves for dinner. 

21. Bring milk and sugar for 
the tea. 

22. Those loaves are very good. 

23. Bring more bread, for this 
is not enough (is little). 

24. Do you want both milk 
and bread? 



54 - 



25. Yih roti lo, khansama, yih 25. Take this bread, cook, this 
bahut hi achchhi hai. is most excellent. 

Note that "ka" is the equivalent of '"s". The sahib's dinner, 
Sahib ka khana, which would be, sahib ki roti, sahib ke alii 
according to gender and number. There is no word for the 
definite article. 

Vocabulary. Alfdz. 
again Naukar log 



Phir 

Bolo, bolna 

Ahista* 

Mat 

Samajh 

Mew 

Bat 



Speak, to speak 

Slowly 

Mustn't den / 

Understanding 

In 

thing, idea, 

saying 

Thik right, correct. 

Pahla, pahli first 
Dusra, dusri second 
Tisra, tisri third 
Lafz, alfaz word, words 
Talaffuz pronunciation 

Se from 

Pata trace, address 

Nahi(na-hai)No, is not 



Char 
Panch 
Bas 
Log 
Pakana 
Kam 
Aj 

Mera, meri, 
mere 



four 

five 

enough 

people 

to cook 

work 

to-day 

my, mine 



Bera 

Khansamaw 
Khidmatgar 
Bihishti 

Mihtar 

Bawarchi 

Masalchi 

Sais 

Aya 

Ghas-kat 

Mali 



servants, ser- 
vant-folk 

Bearer, head-ser- 
vant 

butler, cook, 
steward; 

"khit", table -ser- 
vant 

waterman, 
"beesty". 

sweeper 

cook 

scullion 

Syce, groom 

ayah, nursemaid 

grasscutter 

gardener 



Gwala, gawala Cowman 

Darzi 

Dhobi 

Dhobin 

Chaukidar 

Chaprasi 

Munshi 



tailor 

washerman 

washerwoman 

watchman 

messenger boy 

teacher 



Pankhe-wala punkha-puller 
Mihtarani sweeperess 



* This, contrary to rule, has the accent on the first syllable. 



55 



Li'ye, or lie for 

Kyuwki because, for, 

since 

Ka, ki, ke 's", of 
Naukar Servants 



Khansamin cook, or cook's 

wife 
Pankhe-wali punkha- puller, 

(woman) 
Malin gardener's wife. 



LESSON IV. CHAUTHA SABAQ. 

IV. Ai khansamaw, zara pine ka pani abhi mujh ko dekar 
O cook, a little drinking of water now me to having-given. 
Cook, please give me a drink now; and 

Note the change of "pina" to "pine", before ka, being used 
as a verbal noun. Pi-na gives the root pi, to this the ending 
"kar" forms the participle which denotes a time precedent to 
its verb, and may often be translated by and, and it is 'in con- 
sequence called the "conjunctive" participle. Zara is used with 
imperatives to soften the command. 



Derivative 

1. Pine ka pani do. (They^say) 
Pani do. 

2. Wuh roti bhi de do. 

3. Sahib ka khana dekar roti 
khao. > 

4. Khidmatgar, zara pani pilao. 

5. Roti khakar khana taiyar 
karo. 

6. Roti khakar bahut pani 
na pio. 

7. Apni roti mujh ko do. 

8. Pani jaldi pikar zara mujhe 
bhi do. 

9. Pani pine ke liye aur roti 
khane ke liye ham ko de do. 



Sentences. 

1. Give me a drink. 

2. Give that bread too. 

3. Serve the Master's dinner 
and then eat. 

4. Waiter, please give me a 
drink. 

5. Eat and then get dinner 
ready. 

6. Don't drink a lot of water 
after eating. 

7. Give your bread to me. 

8. Drink quickly and give me 
some too. 

9. Give us some water to drink 
and bread to eat. 



- 56 - 



10. Ihansama meri roti taiyar 
karta hai. [hai. 

11. Wuh mail apni roti pakata 

12. Main dabal roti khata hu#, 
turn kya khate ho? 

13. Wuh larka dudh pita hai. 

14. Yih larki cha piti hai. 

15. Larki,* tu kya khati hai? 

1 6. Larke, tu bhi yihi roti khata 
hai? 

17. Ha, ham sab yihi roti 
khate hain. 

1 8. Turn log wuhi roti khate ho ? 

19. Wuh sab larke makkhan 
roti khate hain. 

20. Wuh admi do do rotian 
khate hain. [hain. 

21. Yih larkiaVz bahut dudh piti 

22. Ihuda ham T ko aur turn ko 
bhi roti deta hai. 

23. ]huda tujh ko aur us ko 
bhi deta hai. 

24. Ap khansamaw ko dudh 
dete hai#? 

25. Nahi, wuh ap hi leta hai. 

26. Khidmatgar ap ka namak 
khata hai. 

27. Ap un se dudh aur mak- 
khan lete haiw? 

28. Wuh dudh mere liye hai. 

29. Yih namak tumhare lie nahiw 
hai. 



10. The cook gets my bread 
ready. [own food. 

11. That gardener cooks his 

1 2. I eat raised bread, what do 
you eat? 

13. That boy drinks milk. 

14. This girl drinks tea. 

15. (My) girl, what do you eat? 

1 6. My boy, dost thou eat this 
bread? 

17. Yes, we all eat this bread. 

[bread? 

1 8. Do you all eat only that 

19. All those boys eat bread 
and butter. 

20. Those men eat two loaves 
each. [milk. 

21. These girls drink lots of 

22. God gives me (us) and you 
too (our) food. 

23. God gives to thee and to 
him, too. 

24. Do you give the cook milk ? 

25. No, he takes it himself. 

26. The khit eats your salt 
(serves you). 

27. Do you get milk and butter 
from them? 

28. That milk is for me. 

29. This salt is not for you. 



* Not used in address, save to God. 
f Often used for the singular, mujk ko. 



57 



30. Yih rotian hamare lie ham. 

31. Yih pani tere lie hai. 

32. Chhe rotiaw us ke lie hain. 

33. Un ke lie sat chaukiaw 
. chahiyew, bazar se lao. 

34. Sahib khana khate hain. 

35. Naukar log kam karte hain. 

36. Un admion ke liye roti jaldi 
lao. 

37. Is admi ke liye ath das 
rotiaw le ao. 

38 VVuh admi larkiow ke liye 
roti laj-aha hai. 

39. In nau larko/z ke liye cha 
?la do. 

40. Islarkekirotibarikharabhai. 



30. These loaves are for us. 

31. This water is for thee. 

32. Six loaves are for him. 

33. Seven chairs are required 
for them, bring them from 
the shbp. 

34. The master is eating dinner. 

35. The servants are at work. 

36. Bring bread for those men 
quickly. 

37. Bring eight or ten loaves 
for this man Vn ^ kW 

38. That man is^bringing bread 
for the girls. 

39. Bring tea for these nine 
boys. 

40. This boy's bread is verybad. 



Conjugation* 

I eat bread 
Thou eatest bread 
He eats bread 
We eat bread 
You eat bread 
You eat bread 
They eat bread. 

Maiw achchhi roti khati hun 
Tu achchhi roti khati hai 
Wuh achchhi roti khati hai 
Ham achchhi roti khati hai;z 
Turn achchhi roti khati ho 



Main roti khata 
Tu roti khata hai 
Wuh roti khata hai 
Ham roti khate ham 
Turn roti khate ho 
Ap roti khate hai 
Wuh roti khate haiw 



I eat good bread 
Thou eatest good bread 
She eats good bread 
We eat good bread 
You eat good bread 



* Remember that these paradigm sentences must not be learned by 
rote, but from slips. So that any one, at any time, in any connection, may 
be freely used. 



- 58 - 



Ap achchhi roti khati haw 
Wuh achchhi roti khati haw 

Maw apna kam karta hiw 
Tu apna kam karta hai 
Wuh apna kam karta hai 
Ham apna kam karte ham 
Turn apna jcam karte ho 
Ap apna kam karte haw 
Wuh apna kam karte haw 



You eat good bread 
They eat good bread 

I am doing my own work 
Thou art doing thine own work 
He is doing his own work 
We are doing our own work 
You are doing your own work 
You are doing your own work 
They are doing their own work. 



Maw apna kam karti hu 

Tu apna kam karti hai 

Wuh apna kam karti hai She etc., 

Ham apna kam karti haw 

Turn apna kam karti ho 

Ap apna kam karti haw 

Wuh apna kam karti haw 

Note that "wuh" is used as the personal pronoun for "he", 
"she" and "it", but also as "that", and that "wuh" and "yih" 
have each the same form for both singular and plural. 

Write out the declension of the personal pronouns from 
the lessons thus far. 

The present tense is composed of the present participle, 
which is formed by adding "ta, ti, te" to the root, compound- 
ed with the required form of the verb hun, hai, ho, haw. 
This present has the meaning of "he eats", and "he is eating", 
for which latter they have also another present, wuh roti khd 
rahd hai,' as 38. 

Note the two case forms of mas. nouns in "i", the three 
of ferns, in "i", the four of mas. in "a' 1 . Observe the formation 
of ferns, from mas. as larki from larka. Nouns have two usual 
forms in each number, absolute, used for nom. and obj. and 
an "oblique" or "formative", which had best be called a prep- 
ositional form. To these we may add the vocative. 



59 



Achchha Achchhi 
Achchhe Achchhi 
Achchhe Achchhi 



Achchhe Achchhi 



Absolute Larka Larki Admi 

Prepositional Larke Larki Admi 

Vocative Larke, Larka Larki Admi 

Plural 

Absolute Larke Larkiarc Admi 

Prepositional Larko Larkiow Admio# Achchhe Achchhi 

Vocative Larko Larkio Admio Achchhe Achchhi 

Speed Tests. The pupil should now be able to repeat 
the model sentence, Ai khansama/z, zara. pine ka pani abhi 
mujh ko dekar, apni roti jaldi khao, kyuwki aj mere liye bahut 
achchha khana taiyar karna chahiye, nine or ten times a 
minute. Be sure that this rate is attained-and maintained for 
a month. Have the derivative sentences so that you can give 
them very readily. If you are living up to laboratory tests and 
forgetting 60% over night, it will take a good deal of re- 
peating to bring the residue up to ioo/o- A man followed 
his two children of five and six years around one whole day, 
and kept count of every word that they said all that day. When 
sufficiently rested to tabulate results, he found that they had 
each made 15000 word utterances. This means a lot of talking, 
a lot of repeating of these few words that are thus far in your 
ken to bring your daily word utterances up to 15000. Repeat, 
but keep your mind alert, by timing yourself, and trying to beat 
your best record. 



Articles of food 
Pulse, dal 
Soup 
fowl 
roast 
stew 

rice and meat 
cooked dry 





Vocabulary. 


Alfdz. 


Zara 


a little, "please" 


Khane ki 


Larka 


boy 


chfze# 


Larki 


girl 


Dal 


Admi 


man, person 


Shorba 


Bara, ban' 


big 


Murgi 


Kharab 


bad, vicious 


Kabab 


Ath 


eight 


Ishtu 


Nau 


nine 


Pulao 


Das 


ten 





6o 



Ek, pahla, 

pahli One, first 

Do, dusra, 

diisri Two, second 

Tin, tisra, 

tisri Three, third 

Char, chautha, 

-i Four, fourth 

Panch, panch- 

waw, -win Five, fifth 
Chha,chhatha, 

-thi Six, sixth 

Sat, satwaX 

satwfe Seven, seventh 
Ath,-wa;/,-wi;z eight, eighth 
Nau,-wa,-wi7zNine. ninth 
Das,-wa,-wiTen, tenth, 
Gyara, -wan, 

-win Eleven, eleventh 

Bara, -wan, 

-win Twelve, twelfth 



Pishpash rice and meat 

cooked 
Khir, thori rice boiled in 

milk 
Khichari rice and dal, dry 

kachchf cooked 

Maida, thora fine flour 
Chawal, 

achchhe rice husked, in 

grain 

Suji, thori wheat-germ meal 
Sabzi, thori vegetables, 

greens 

Putin Pudding 

Sirka, thora vinegar 
Gae ka gosht Cow's meat, beef 
Bherikagosht sheep's meat, 

mutton 

Hem Ham, bacon 

Phal, taza fruit, fresh 



Interrogative 

All interrogative words beg 
does question, as do our English 

1. Kya yih ap ka larka hai? 

2. Yih kya bat hai. 

3. Yih larka kaun hai? 

4. Daktar sahib ka larka hai. 

5. Han han, thik hai. Unhin 
ka larka hai. 

6. Ap ka bara larka kaha hai ? 



Exercises. 

;in with the sound of "k", as 
interrogatives with wh. 

1. Is this your boy? 

2. What do you mean by this ? 
(What's this thing?) 

3. Who is this boy? 

4. He's the Dr. 's boy. 

5. Yes, yes, that's right. It's 
his boy. 

6. Where is your older boy? 
(or oldest.) 



61 



7. Wuh to shahr men hai? 

8. Shahr men kyun hai? 

9. Thik pat a nahm. Ap kyu;/ 
puchhte hai;/? 

10. Daktar sahib ke kitne larke 



1 1 . I-vhansamatf, turn kya karte 

12. Koi hai? t ho? 

13. Koi nahm. or, Haw, baba 
log ham. 

14. Sahib kidhar gaye ham. 

1 5 . Wuh to shahr ko gaye hai;/. 

1 6. Yih admi kaisa kam karta 
hai? 

17. Yih to bahut achchha kam 
karta hai? 

1 8. Sahib shahr se kab ate ham ? 

19. Wuh panch baje ate ham. 

20. Wuh tiffin kab khate ham? 



7. He is in the city? 

8. Why is he in the city? 

9. I don't know exactly. Why 
do you ask? 

10. How many boys has the 
Civil Surgeon? 

11. Cook, what are you doing? 

12. Is any one here? 

13. No, no one, or, Yes, the 
children are. 

14. Whither has sahib gone? 

15. He has gone to the city. 

16. What sort of work does 
this man do? 

17. He does very good work 
indeed. 

1 8. When does the master come 
from the city? 

19. He comes at five o'clock. 

20. When does he take lunch? 



Vocabulary. Alfdz. 



Kya 


What? 


Kaisa, kaisi, 




Kaun? 


Who? 


kaise 


What kind of? 


Kahaw? 


Where? 


Kab? 


When? 


Kyuw ? 


Why? 


Kai? 


How many? 


Kitna? 


How much ? 


Shahr 


City 


Kidhar? 


Whither? 


Baja, baje 


Struck, o'clock 



Interrogative Exercises. Sawdliye Jumle. 

1. Kya baja hai? i. What time is it ? (What has 

struck ?) 

2. Ek baja hai. Sawa baja hai. 2. It is one o'clock. 1/4 more 

than one. 



62 

3. Derh baja hai. 3. It is half past one. 

4. Paune do baje hai. 4. 1/4 less than two have 

struck. 

5. Dobajehaiw. Tin baje haiw. 5. It is two o'clock. It is three 

o'clock. 

6. Dhai baje hain. Char baje 6. Two and a half have struck. 
hai#. It is four. 

7. Paune tin baje hain. Sawa 7. 1/4 less than 3. 1/4 more 
tin baje. than 3. 

8. Sawa tin, sarhe tin, paune 8. 3 : 15; 3 : 30; 3 : 45, or, 
char baje hain. 3 1/4, 3 1/2, 3 3/4. 

9. Sawa char, sarhe char, 9. 4 1/4, 4 1/2, 4 3/4. 
paune panch. 

10. Sawa panch, sarhe panch, 10. 5 1/4, 5 1/2, 5 3/4. 
paune chha. 

11. Sawa chha, sarhe chha, n. 6 1/4, 6 1/2, 6 3/4. 
paune sat. 

12. Sawa sat, sarhe sat, paune 12. 7 1/4, 7 1/2, 7 3/4. 
ath. 

13. Sawa ath, sarhe ath, paune 13. 8 1/4, 8 1/2, 8 3/4. 

nau - [das. 

14. Sawa nau, sarhe nau, paune 14. 9 1/4, 9 1/2, 9 3/4. 

15. Sawa das, sarhe das, paune 15. 10 1/4, 10 1/2, 10 3/4. 
gyara (or, yara). 

16. Sawa gyara, sarhe yara, 16. n 1/4, n 1/2, n 3/4. 
paune bara. 

17. Sawa bara, sarhe bara, 17. 12 1/4, 12 : 30, 12 : 45. 
pauna ek baja. 

Note that in numbers, "sawa" is a qr. more than, and "paune" 
a qr. less than, the number it precedes. ' Baja changes to baje. 
beyond "derh", one and a half, as it is a participle, and agrees 
with its noun, "two have struck". Avoid saying "tin baja", 
rather, tin baje, do baje. Sawa does not change its form, but 
paune is pauna with ek. 



- 63 - 

Vocabulary. 

Bajna to strike, ring Sarhe one half more than 

Baja,baje struck Derh one and a half 

Sawa a quarter more than Dhai two and a half 
Fauna, -e, a quarter less than 

Exercises in money. 

1. Is ka kya dam hai? I. What's the price of this? 
or, Is ki kya qi'mat hai? What's the value of this? 

2. Ek rupaya. Do rupae. 2. One rupee. Two rupees. 

3. Bara pai ek ana. 3. Twelve pie one anna. 

4. Char paise ek ana. 4. Four pice one anna. . 

5. Sola ane ek rupaya. 5. Sixteen annas one rupee. 

6. Do athannia# ek rupaya. 6. Two eight anna bits one rupee. 

K/. Pandra rupae ek savran. 7. Fifteen rupees one sovereign. 
s* 

Note that "rupee" is not the Urdu form, but that we say 
"ek ru/>tfja", and not "ek rupee", but "do, tin ru/toze", not rupee. 
Note the accented syllable in Urdu. 

Get these numbers at your tongue's end, for you may lose 
money some time if you are not well up in "sawa's" and "paune's". 
1/4, 1/2, 3/4, i, i 1/4, i 1/2, i 3/4, 2, 2 1/4, 2 1/2, 2 3/4, 3, 
3 1/4, 3 1/2, 3 3/4, 4, 4 1/4, 4 1/2, 4 3/4, 5, 5 1/4, 5 1/2, 5 3/4, 
6, 6 1/4, 6 1/2, 6 3/4, 7, 7 1/4, 7 1/2, 7 3/4, 8, 8 1/4, 8 1/2, 
8 3/4, 9, 9 i/4, 9 1/2, 9 3/4, 10, 10 1/4, 10 1/2, 10 3/4, n, 
n 1/4, ii 1/2, ii 3/4, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,20,25, 50, 100. 

Pau, adha, tin_ gau, pauna ser, tera chauda, pandra, sola, 
satra, athara, unnfs, bis, pachis, pachas, sau, ek kon ya bis. 

Lj - Qu V ./ 

vocabulary. 

Dam price Paisa pice, money 

Qimat value Athanni eight anna bit 

Rupaya rupee, money Chauanni four anna bit 

Pai one-twelfth anna Pau a quarter 

Ana one-sixteenth ru- Chauthaf one fourth 

pee Chautha hissa a fourth part 



- 6 4 - 



Tisra hissa a third part 


Do daf c a 


two times 


Adha half 


Tin daf a 


three times 


Tin chauthai three fourths 


Kori 


a score, twenty 


Ek dafa one time 


Ya 


or 



These exercises should be practiced daily for fifteen or 
twenty minutes with answers of place, money, time, quantity, 
etc. for two months or longer, till thoroughly mastered. 

LESSON V. PANCHWA^ SABAQ. 

(a) Mai// upar lota lene g a yi thi 
I above pitcher to-get gone was 

(b) walid akele baithe hue kitab parh rahe the 
parent alone seated been book read-ing were 

(c) Mai ane lagi to miya ne ; apka nam liya aur kaha ki 

unko bhej-de< 

I to-come began then Mr. your name took and said 

them send 

(a) I went up stairs to get the pitcher, (b) your father was 
sitting alone reading a book, (c) I started to come, then your 
father taking your name said "Send him". 

Directions. Learn in three clauses, (a), (b), (c). Note that the 
50 syllables should be repeated in nine or ten seconds. A woman 
servant is speaking, hence the fern, gayi, thi, and lagi. She also 
uses plurals out of respect to her master and his son, just as 
we in English say you for thou, and Germans, Sie, they, for thou. 

Vocabulary. Alfdz. 

Upar above Ana to come 

Ke upar above (prep.) Akela, 

Lota pitcher, jug akelf, akele alone 

*Gaya,gayi, went, he, she, they Baithna to sit 

gaye Baithe hue seated 

Tha, thi was, (he, she) Parhna to read, study 

The, thiw were, (they) Kitab, kitabe book, books 

* In the Punjab this is usually pronounced as if spelled gia. 



foctrta hzi ^ 

- 55 - 



Kahna to say 

Lena to take 

Liya,liye, If taken , ~t 

Lagna 

Miya;z 

Ne 



Kaha 

Bhejna 

Dena 

diya, diye, di 

Khaya 

Bola 

Kiya 

Dikhaya 

Le-gaya 

Laya 

Ma c lum 

Taza, tazi 

Basi 



said 

to send 

to give 

gave 

ate 

spoke 

did, made 

showed 

took away 

brought 

known 

fresh 

stale 



to begin, stick to, 
Mr.* 

sign of subj.in past 
tense of trans, 
verbs 

Nam name 

Walid parent (mas.) 

Walida parent (fem.) 
Walidain parents (Arabic 

dual) 
Ki that 

Note that in "lota lene [ko] gayi thi", lene is the inf. with 
ko understood, tho it is sometimes expressed. "Ane lagi" is the 
usual way of expressing beginning^ i. e., tHe inflected infinitive 
with "lagna". Jane laga, he started to go. Khane laga, he began 
to eat. Khana pakane lagi hai. She has begun to cook. "Liya" 
agrees with "nam", its object. Why? Because it does. Don't 
waste your time on "why" the first year. After that you can 
ask it all you wish. "Kaha, also follows the same rule, its ob- 
ject, the clause, being considered mas. 

>"Dena", the inf. is often used as a softer form of command, 
and frequently refers to the future. Abhi do, Give it at once. 
Kal dena, Give it to-morrow. 

Derivative Sentences. 




1. Miya# ne ap ka lota le liya. 

2. Miyaw ne ap ke lote le liye. 

3. Miyaw ne ap ki rotf le li thi. 

4. Miyaw ne ap ki rotiarc le If/z. 

5. Maiw ne ap ka nam liya. 

6. Maiw ne ap ki kitab h' hai. 



1. The master took your 
pitcher. 

2. Master took your pitchers. 

3. Master took your bread. 

4. Master took your loaves. 

5. I took your name. 

6. I have taken your book. 

5 



66 



7. Us ne tumharf kitab li hai. 7. 

8. Ham ne miyan ki kitab li thi. 8. 

9. Unho?/ neikitabera mujh ko 9. 
dm. 

[O. Mai;z ne do basi rotia^ 10. 

khaiw, aur turn ne tazi tazi 

roti khai. 
n. Apnelkyaachchhibatkahi. n. 

12. Larke nelbahut roti khai hai. 1 2. 

'I 

13. Larke ne kaha ki Mam ne 13. 
nahi# li. 

14. Larkow ne bari kitab mujh 14. 
se li. 

15. LarkioTz ne kursi apko bhej 15. 
di. 

1 6. Un admio?2 ne yihi kam 16. 
kiya hai. 

17. Apkaismmubarakkyahai? 17. 
Ap ka ism sharif kya hai? 
Tumhara nam kya hai? 

1 8. Mera nam I^huda Bakhsh 18. 
hai. 

19. Aiye, janab, zara baithiye. 19. 
Sahib khana kha rahe hai. 

20. Tashrif laiye. 20. 

21. Ap tashrif le jate hai? 21. 



* Indirect discourse is seldom 



He has taken your book. 

We had taken the master's 

book. 

They gave me the books. 

I ate two stale loaves, and 
you ate nice fresh bread. 

What a good thing you said. 

The boy has eaten plenty 

of bread. 

The boy said he had not 

taken it (lit. "I have not 

taken it")* 

The boys took (got) the 

big book from me. 

The girls sent you the chair. 

Those men have done this 
work. 

What is your name r (What 
is your blessed title? What 
is your noble cognomen?) 
My name is K. B. (The 
reply is always given thus, 
mera nam thus and so hai). 
Please come and take a seat, 
sir. Master is eating dinner. 
Bring in your ennoblingness, 
i. e. Come in. 
Are you going? (Are you 
taking away your ennobling- 
ness?) 
used in Hindustani. 



- 6 7 - 



22. Aptashrff kaharakhtehai? 

23. Kya/unhoTz ne^iM lota turn 
ko diya tha/ya nahi? Yih 
to unka hargiz nahi, yih 
to mera hi hai. 

24. Ap is kitab ko parhiye, 
yih men' sab se achchhi 
kitab hai. 

25. Ap ne yih lota kitne men 



26. Main ne yih lota ek rupae 
ko liya. 

27. Mitti ke lote derh derh paise 
ate hai#. 

28. Main ne yih chadar chha 
sat ane gaz li thi. 

29. Dak-khane men se meri (dak 
ki) chitthia/z, mera nam 
lekar, le ao. 

30. Ap ke nam ki koi chitthi 
dak-wale ke pas nahin hai. 

31. Main akela baithkar apni 
kitab parhne laga. 

32. Apni kitab mujh ko la do. 

33. Main rotiwale ko chabiaw 
dene laga tha, ki mere walid 
ne akar mujh se le li. 

34. Turn ne sahib ko tiffin kyun 
na bheji? 

35. Main ne kal thik do pahar 
ko bhej di thi. 



22. Where do you keep your 
ennoblingness ? (live!) 

23. Did they give you this jug 
or not? This is- not theirs 
at-all, it's mine. 

24. Kindly read this book. It 
is my best. 

215. How much did you get 
this jug for? 

26. I got this pitcher for one 
rupee. 

27. Earthen jugs come at a 
pice and a half each. 

28. I got this sheet at six or 
seven annas a yard. 

29. Get my letters from the 
post office. Out of the P. O. 
my (post's) letters, my name 
taking, gePand come. 

30. The postman has no letters 
for you. 

31.1 sat down alone and began 
to read my book. 

32. Bring me your book. 

33. I was just going to give the 
keys to the breadman, when 
father came and took them 
from me. 

34. Why did you not send the 
sahib his tiffin? 

35. I sent it yesterday exactly 
at noon (two watches). 

5* 






68 



36. Kis ne kaha tha ki yih 
kitab bari achchhi hai? 

37. Bera ne akar kaha hai ki 
sais ne baggi (bagghi)taiyar 
kar li hai. 

38. Kya sahib ne ab tak khana 
nahiVz khaya? 

39. Abhi kha rahe hain. Ap 
zara baithen. 

40. In ath achchhe lotow ke 
liye kya qimat deni cha- 
hiye? 

41. Wuh lote achchhe nahin 
hain; yih un se bahut 
achchhe hain. 

42. In das ]haranon ke liye 
main ne das das paise, ya'ni 
dhai, dhai ane diye. 

43. Tumhare bap ka kya nam 
hai? Ap ke walid ka ism 
mubarak kya hai? 

44. Yahan koi admi hai, jo 
shahr se aya hai? 

45. Ma'lum nahi, janab. 

46. Us larke ne turn ko kitne 
lote diye? 

47. Yih kapra char ane gaz 
liya tha. 

48. Larko;z ne yihi kapra mujh 
ko diya. 

49. Main tumhare liye kitab 
laya hu;z. 

50. Larkia^|larko ke lie khana 
lai hain. 



36. Who^said that this book 
was (is) very good? 

37. The bearer has come and 
says that the syce has the 
buggy ready. 

38. Has not the sahib eaten 
his dinner yet? 

39. He is just eating. Will you 
be seated for a little. 

40. What ought one to give for 
these eight good jugs? 

41. Those jugs are not good. 
These are much better. 

42. For these ten dusters, I gave 
ten pice each, that is two 
and a half annas each. 

43 . What is your father's name ? 



44. Is there any man here who 
has come from the city? 

45. Don't know, sir. 

46. How many jugs did that 
boy give you? 

47. I got this cloth at four annas 
a yard. 

48. The boys gave this cloth. 

tome,. 

49. I have brought a book for 
you. 

50. The girls have brought the 
dinner for the boys. 



- 69 - 

51. Larka aya aur kaha "Sab 51. The boy came and said 
log ae haiw". "All the people have come". 

52. Khansamaw khana lane 52. The cook has begun to 
laga hai. bring the dinner. 

Note. The exaggerated politeness of the East is shown in 
1722, and though it may sound ridiculous at first, it is polite 
usage among the educated native gentlemen, and the missionary 
should accustom himself to using it. The agreement of verb 
with object in I, 2, 3, 4, 25, 26, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 42, 46, 47, 
is curious, but it must be accepted and learned so thoroughly 
that one cannot fail to use it properly. Master these few sen- 
tences absolutely. Intransitive verbs agree with their subjects, 
as in 44, 49, 50, 51, and Idyd is reckoned as intransitive be- 
cause it is a compound of le-dnd, le-dyd. 7i?/r //7<f 

Observe the comparison of adjectives in 24 and 41. It is 
the regular way of forming the comparative, un se achchhd, and 
the superlative, sab se achchhd.* 

Conjugation Past Tense. 

Main roti lene gaya, gay if I went to get bread 

Tu roti lene gaya, gayi Thou wentest to get bread 

Wuh roti lene gaya, gayi He, she, went to get bread 

Ham roti lene gaye, gayin We went to get bread 

Turn roti lene gaye, gayin You went to get bread 

Ap roti lene gaye, gayin You (polite) went etc. 

Wuh roti lene gaye, gayin . They went to get bread 
Main shahr se aya hu, ai hun I have come from the city 
Tu shahr se aya hai, ai hai Thou hast come from the city 
Wuh shahr se aya hai, ai hai He, she, has come from the city 
Ham shahr se ae hain, ai hain We have come from the city 
Turn shahr se ae ho, ai ho You have come from the city 
Ap shahr se ae hain, ai hain You (polite) have come etc. 
Wuh shahr se ae hain, ai hain They have come from the city 
* The teacher should introduce the comparison of a number of adjectives 
with se, sab se, and ki nisbat. 
f Let the pupil get both forms well, but especially learn well one's own gender. 



7 



Mam bazar se laya tha, lai thi 

Tu bazar se laya tha, lai thi 
Wuh bazar se laya tha, lai thi 
Ham bazar se lae the, lai thin 
Turn bazar se lae the, lai thin 
Ap bazar se lae the, lai thin 
Wuh bazar se lae the, lai thin 

=> Main ne apni kitabew un ko din 
Tu ne apni kitab unko di 
Us ne apni kitab unko di 
Ham ne apni kitab unko di 
Turn ne apni kitab unko di 
Ap ne apni kitab unko di 
Unho;z ne apni kitab unko di 

Main ne, tu ne, us ne, ham ne, 
turn ne, ap ne, unho# ne, 
uski kitab (mujhe) di thf 
(tumko). 

Main ne, tu ne, wagaira, rotian 
unse li hain. 

Main ne, tu ne, wagaira, tin 
rotian khai thin. 

Main ne, tu ne, wagaira, khana 
pakaya hai. 

J Mubarak blessed 

Ism name, noun 

Sharif &,, noble [nour 

Tashrif/7~ making noble, ho- 

"' Rakhna to put, keep 

4 Hargiz nahi/z never 

- Mitti earth 



I bro't (or, had bro't) it from the 

bazar 

Thou bro'test it from the bazar 
He, she, bro't it from the bazar 
We brought it from the bazar 
You brought it from the bazar 
You etc. 
They brought it from the bazar 

I gave them my books* 
Thou gavest them thy book 
He gave them his book 
We gave them our book 
You gave them your book 
You gave them your book 
They gave them their book 

I gave you his book, thou gavest 
me his book. [Write each 
person and gender on a sepa- 
rate slip and so master it] 

I, thou, etc. have got bread 
from them 

I, thou, etc., ate three loaves. 

I, thou, etc., have cooked dinner. 

Chadar sheet 

Dak post, mail 

Dak-khana postoffice 

Dak-wala postman 

Rotiwala breadman 

Kitna, kitni, 'how much? how 
kitne? many? 



* Substitute, after learning, any familiar nouns. 



Chitthi letter Jharan cloth for wiping 

Ke pas by, with dusting 

Chabi key Kapra cloth 

1 Bera bearer, head ser- - Sab all 

vant in English Log people 

housholds : Wagaira etc. "and other' : 

Bap father ^Pakana to cook 

Shahr city ^Ma'lum known 

Janab Sir, your honour Kursi chair. 

LESSON VI. CHHATA SABAQ. 

(a) Mai;z pahle chhoto?? se shurtf karuwga 

I first littles with beginning make-will 

(b) aur ummed hai/ki, wuh jald/sachchhi rah par a jae 
and hope is that they soon true way on may-come 

(c) magar yih to / main khub janta hun 
but this, indeed, I well knowing am 

(d) ki yih naya dhang dekhkar baro ke kan khare honge. 
that this new fashion seeing big ones'ears standing will-be. 

(a) I shall begin with the little children first, (b) and I hope 
that they may quickly come on the true path, (c) but I know 
this well, (d) that when the big children see this new fashion 
(having family prayers), they will be dumbfounded (lit. their 
ears will stand). 

Learn these four clauses separately, alternating with those 
already learned. Remember the clauses are to be so well learned 
that they can be given in regular or irregular order at the 
required speed. The whole sentence in ten seconds. 

Note that adjectives are frequently used as nouns, chhoton, 
baron. Many verbs are formed like sJiuril karnd, as chhotd karnd, 
to make small, bard karnd-, to enlarge, kJiard karnd, to make stand. 
"Jald" is the real adverb and jaldi is the noun, which with se, 
frequently understood, is often used as an adverb. 

Pronunciation. It is time that the pupil was beginning to 



make a decided difference between English final a, as in America, 
and final "a" as in chhota, and between final "i", as in jaldi, and 
final "y" in hurry. 

Warning. Remember our threefold rule, Readiness, Accu- 
racy, Fluency. Do not neglect the slips and the watch. Carefully 
check your speed. 

Derivative Sentences. 

1. Mai# chhote se shuru' karke I. Beginning with the small, 
bara kam bhi karu^ga. 

2. Ab to ma'lum nahte, magar 
ma'lum karibzga. 

3. Mai to nahi janta, turn 
jante ho? 

4. Mai pahle apna kam 



111 do the big job too. 

2. I do not know -now, but 
I'll. find. out. 

3. I, ..don't know, do you? 



karu^ga. 
5. Jab khau^ga, tab jau;zga. 



6. Mam ap jald du^ga. Kya 
turn bhi doge? 

7. Mera kam kab karoge? kal 
ya parso? 

8. Maiw kal ap ki kitab par- 
hugi. 

9. Yik larka mera kam karega. 

10. Ham kal ap ka kot chhota 
kare^ge. 

11. Pahla larka pafhega. 

12. Yih larki pahle meri kitab 
pa^-hegi. 

13. Ummed thi ki chhota larka 
kuchh hoga (direct dis- 
course). 



4. I shall do my own work 
first. 

5. When I shall eat (have 

/ hfcjn 

eaten), 111 go. 

6. I shall give it soon. Will 
you too give? 

7. When will you do my work? 
To morrow or day after? 

8. I shall read your book 
tomorrow. 

9. This boy will do my work. 

10. We will make your coat 
smaller tomorrow. 

11. The first boy will read. 

12. This girl will read my book 
first. 

13. I had hoped that the youn- 
ger boy would amount to 
something, (lit. There was 
hope that the small boy 
will be something). 



73 



14. Khana kab taiyar hoga? 

15. Ap ki chauki kal zarur 
taiyar ho jaegi. 

16. Rotia/z abhi taiyar ho 



17. Hamari chhoti larkia^ aj 

awe#gi#. ^^^fj^i-^" 

1 8. Pani abhi garm ho jaega. 

19. Larko, khare ho jao. Ab 
khare raho. 

20. Sab ke sab aj jaewge. 

21. Ham ap se ek ek piyala 
lewge. 

22. Ap do do rotia# khae?/ge, 
na? 

23. Main auw? 

24. Ham a jaew? 

25. Mai?/ jauft? 

26. Mai;/ kyd karuw? 

27. Ham kya kare? 

28. Kal ap ke pas bis rotiaw 
bhejew? 

29. NahiV/, sirf pandra darkar 
ho;/gi. 

30. Kya khidmatgar bazar ko 
jae? 

31. Main pahle sadr bazar ko 
jau;/ga, aur ummed hai ki 
wahaw se sab chizew sasti 
mil jaegiw. 



14. 
15- 

16. 



18. 
19. 

20. 
21. 

22. 

23- 

24. 

25- 
26. 
27. 

28. 
29. 
30. 



& * $ 



When will dinner be ready? 
Your chair will ready tomor- 
row without doubt. 
The bread will be ready 
in a minute. ^As f\^j~ fj& i 
Our little girls will come 
to-day. 
The water will be warm in 
a little while. 

Boys, stand up. Now stand. 
(Become standing. Remain 
standing.) [day. 

All (the whole lot) will go to- 
We shall each take a cup 
of you. 

You'll eat two loaves each, 
won't you? 

May I come? Shall I come? 
Shall we come in? 
May I go? or, Shall I go? 
What can I do? 
What can we do? (It's not 
our fault) 

Shall we send you 20 loaves 
tomorrow ? 

No, only fifteen will be re- 
quired. 

Shall the khit go to the 
market ? 

I shall go to the big bazar 
first, and I think that we 
shall get everything cheap 
there (all things from there 
cheap will be met). 



74 



32. Mujhe ijazat hai? 



33. Ab rukhsat hai. Kal phir 
ana. 

34. Larkow ko khara kar do. 

35. hub. Khub hai. Ihub kiya. 

36. Yih naya dhang bahut khub 
hai. 

37. Nai ko khabar do ki mere 
bal kat jae. 

38. Khidmatgar, ketli de jao. 

39. Kya hua? 



32. May I go? (Is there to me 
permission?) 

33. You may go now. Come 
again tomorrow. 

34. Make the boys stand up. 

35. Excellent. That's good. 
Well done. 

36. This new fashion is very 
good. 

37. Tell the barber to come 
and cut my hair, (having 
cut to go away.) 

38. Waiter, bring me the kettle, 
(giving go). 

39. What's the matter? (What 
happened ?) 

40. Go and give this paper to 
the sahib, (giving come.) 

41. Why has this dog but one 
ear? 






40. Yih akhbar sahib ko de 
ana. 

41. Is kutte ka ek hi kan kyun 
hai? 

Conjugation* .. 

Mai?z kaunsa nek kam karu?z taki maiTz hamesha ki zindagi paun? 
Tu kaunsa nek kam kare taki tu hamesha ki zindagi pae? 
Wuh kaunsa nek kam kare taki wuh hamesha ki zindagi pae? 
Ham kaunsa nek kam kare taki ham hamesha ki zindagi pae;z? 
Turn kaunsa nek kam karo taki turn hamesha ki zindagi pao ? 
Ap kaunsa nek kam kare taki ap hamesha ki zindagi paew? J 
Wuh kaunsa nek kam kare;z taki wuh hamesha ki zindagi pae?z? 
What good work can I do, that I may inherfr eternal life? 

Note that, as in 6 and 21, the future endings coalesce with 

the root vowels of lend and dend. All other stems add these 

endings for the future. The subjunctive, which many call "Aorist" 

for some unknown reason, is the same as the future, minus the 

* Both genders are the same. 



75 

"ga, gi, ge".* Definite futurity is expressed by the future, if it is 
alone. The subjunctive, of this form, expresses indefinite futurity 
and always follows "taki" and words of purpose and wish. 
* Write out the future from the sentences. 

Vocabulary. Alfdz. 



" Shuru' 


beginning 


Par 


on 


Ummed 


hope 


Janna, jana 


to know, knew 


- Khara, khari 


standing 


' Dhawg 


fashion 


* Rah 


way 


Chiz, chizen 


thing (material) 


Kan 


ear 


- Hona, hua ' 


to become, be- 


v Khub 


good 




came 


, Jald 


quickly 


^Khabar, ach- 




* Sachcha, 




chhi 


news 


sachchf 


true, right 


Nai, hajjam 


barber 


Ijazat 


permission > Bal 


hair (used in pi.) 


' Rukhsat 


leave 


" Katna, kata 


to cut, cut 


Darkar 


required 


" Sasta, sasti 


cheap 


Kuchh 


something (in- 


- Sirf 


only 




definite) 


' Garm 


warm 


' Koi chiz 


some thing (de- 


Aj 


today 




finite) 


> Kal 


tomorrow,yester- 


' Magar, par, 






day 


lekin 


but 


Ajkal 


these days, now- 


/Jab 


when (rel.) 




adays 


' Kab 


when? 


Parsow 


day after "kal", 


y Tab 


then 




day before "kal" 


k Marna, mara 


to beat, beaten 


Zarur 


surely, h z ^^sa^H 








v 


' Akhbar 


newspaper, pi. of 


Kutta 


dog 




khabar, news 







LESSON VII. SATWAA^ SABAQ. 

Exercises in "ne". 

Note that all transitive verbs in the past tenses take their 
subjects in the prepositional case form, with "ne". The simple 



- 76 - 



verbs bolna, lana, bhulna, to forget, are used as intransitives. 
Lena, dena, karna, have the perfects liya, diya, kiya, while 
jana, marna, to die, hona, have gaya, mua, hua. All other verbs 
are regular. The transitive verb in its past tenses agrees 
with its objects. The mastery of this peculiarity can be secured 
only by memorizing these sentences most thoroughly. If your 
past work is "kachchd" be your own master sufficiently to go 
back and work it up. You cannot afford to go on on the suppo- 
sition that it will come somehow. The only secret of this method 
is thoroughness. 



1. Main lota laya hu. 

2. Main ne lota bheja. 

3. Mai?z ne lota bheja hai. 

4. Ham ne Lahaur me?? liya 
tha. 

5. Us ne yihi kitab turn ko 
bheji. 

6. UnhoTz ne mere jane se 
pahle yihi kitabe?/ Lahaur 
se bheji thin. 

7. Turn ne achchhi roti nahin 
bheji. 

8. LarkoTz ne achchha kam 
na kiya. 

9. Ap achchhi kursfa lae 
ha.in. 

10. Dak-wala wilayati dak laya 
hai? 

11. Dak-ghar ke babu ne wila- 
yati dak kal ya parson bhej 
di thi. 

12. Wilayati dak ai hai? Han, 
a gayi hai. 



1. I have brought the jug. 

2. I sent the jug. 

3. I have sent the jug. 

4. We got it in Lahore, (liya 
and liya tha are often used 
indifferently.) 

5. He sent you this very book. 

6. They had sent you these 
books from Lahore, before 
I got there. 

7. You have not sent good 
bread. 

8. The boys did not do good 
work. 

9. You have brought good 
chairs. 

10. Has the postman brought 

the foreign mail? 
n. The postmaster sent away 

the foreign mail yesterday 

or day before. 
12. Has the foreign mail come? 

Yes, it has come. 



13. Aya meri kitab lai hai. 13. The ayah has brought my 

book. 

14. Turn ne aj achchhi khir 14. You have cooked good 
pakai hai. "khir" to-day. 

15. Tumhari 'aurat yihi lota de 15. Your wife brought this jug. 
gayi thi. (lit. gave this jug and went 

away.) 

1 6. Us c aurat ne meri larki ko 16. That woman beat my girl, 
mara. 

17. Wuh 'aurate^ kidhar gayi 17. Whither have those women 
hai#? gone? 

1 8. Un c aurato# ne yihi lota 18. Those women gave you 
turn ko diya. this jug. 

19. Wuh larki boli ki "Ghar se 19. The girl said, "Get away 
dur ho jao". from the house". 

20. Us larke ne kaha ki "Ham 20. The boy said "We have 
gae lae haiw". brought the cow". 

21. Mere admi ne kal kitab 21. My man sent the book 
bhej di. yesterday. 

22. Turn makkhan roti lae ho? 22. Have you brought the bread 

and butter? 

23. Usnc kaha tha, ki "Sahib 23. He said "The gentleman 
ae hai;/". has come". 

24. Larka bola ki "Hamne hi 24. The boy said "We sent 
usko bheja hai". him (or, it)". 

25. Quli log hamara asbab le 25. The coolies have taken off 
gaye haiw. our luggage. 

26. Un larko?z ne mere liye ek 26. Those boys have given a 
roti di hai. loaf for me. 

27. Kisneyihmailebartandiye? 27. Who gave (us) these dirty 

dishes ? 

28. Yih, janab, galati se ae hai- 28. These, sir, came by mistake. 

29. Kya roti pak gayi hai? Pak 29. Is the bread baked? It's 
gayi. baked. 



30. Hamne to nahin diya, usne 
ap hi ham se le liya hai. 

31. Kis ne hamare loton ko liya, 
or, kis ne hamare lote liye? 

32. Main ne to nahin liya (liye), 
unho/z ne liya. 

33. Turn ne apni kitab le li thi? 

34. Kya sab naukar shahr se 
ho ae haift? 

35. Kin logo ne tumkochau- 
kfaw din? 

36. Kin logon ne larki ko mara? 

37. Main tin tin rupae ko do 
lote lai hu. 

38. Main das ane gaz kapra 
laya huw. 

39. Tumne kis kis ko lote diye 
the? 

40. Kya usne yih bat turn se 
kahi thi? 

41. "NahiV, 'aurat boli, "Larka 
mujh se nahi, wuh apni 
man se bolta tha". 

42. Kin admioTz ne yih chori 
ki hai? 

43 . Kin larkioft ne turn ko gali di ? 



30. We did not give it, he him- 
self took it from us (has 
taken). 

31. Who took our jugs. 

32. I didn't do it. They did. 

33. Did you get your book? 

34. Have all the servants re- 
turned from the city? 

35. What people gave you 
chairs ? 

36. What people beat the girl? 

37. I have gotten two jugs at 
three rupees each. 

38. I have brought cloth at ten 
annas a yard. 

39. To whom did you give the 
jugs? 

40. Did he say this to yon? 

41. "No", said the woman, "the 
boy did not speak to me, he 
was talking to his mother". 

42. What men have done this 
thieving ? 

43. What girls were abusing 
you? 

44. Did you take the chair? 

thin do not change the 



44. Kya tumne chauki ko liya ? 

Note that in 4, n, thd, thi 
tense to pluperfect but are properly translated as simple past. 
Nevertheless, as in 6, they often give this pluperfect idea. 

In 7 and 8 nahi and na are thus regularly used with the 
present perfect and simple past. 



79 



In 15 and 34 as in VI, 38, 40, the emphasis is on the 
second action, going and coming. 

Where the object is a thing, there the verb agrees, unless 
the concord be broken by "ko", when it takes the absolute 
form in "a". 

Note how in the answer in 29 the gender of the 
subject, though unexpressed is carried over into the verb. 
This is a nicety of speech, that, no matter, how difficult, 
must be well acquired, else one's talk will often be unintelli- 
gible. We must learn to think of things in terms of "a", "i", 
and "e". 

Intransitive verbs are much given to using the root with 
some form of "jdnd", as in 12, 15, 29. Transitive verbs use 
"dend" in some form, when the action goes toward another, 
while a reflex termination is often shown by use of "tiyd", 
"lend", like the Greek Middle Voice. 

All perfect participles are regularly formed by adding "a" 
to the root. 

In 44, as usual, ko with chauki makes it definite, and so 
we translate the chair. 

Vocabulary. Alfdz. 

Wilayat England, foreign- 
country 

Wilayati foreign, English 

Dak-ghar post office 

Babii clerk, gentleman 

Khir rice boiled in milk 

Hamara-i-e our 

Tumhara-i-e your 

'Aurat woman 

Ghar house 

Dur far 

Hojana become 



Kam 


work 


Quli 


cooly 


Asbab 


stuff, luggage 


Maila 


dirty 


Bartan 


dish 


Galati 


mistake 


Pakna 


to cook (intrans.) 


Chauki 


chair 


Gaz 


yard, 3 ft. 


Man 


mother 


Chori 


theft 


Gali 


abuse. 



So 



LESSON VIII. SABAQ ATHWAA: 
Sari chizen uske wasile se paida hum 
All things his means by born were. 

All things were made by him. 

aur koi chiz bhi uske bagair paida na huf. 
and any thing, even, him besides born not was 

and without him was nothing made. 

Learn to repeat three times in fifteen seconds. 

Note that "paida" is an indeclinable adjective. "Wasile" may 
be used with, or without, the "se". All prepositions which have 
the ending in "e", take "ke" and not "ki" before them. 



Vocabulary. Alfdz. 

Sara, sari, sare entire, whole, all Paida 
Wasila a means Bagair 



born, created 
besides, except. 



Derivative 

1. Kya hua? Turn to isliye 
paida nahi hue. 

2. Maiw dak-khane ho aya hu. 



3. Turn kaha paida hue? 

4. Yih bachcha das din ka 
paida hua hai. 

5. Jabbillikebachchehotethe, 
to bara tamasha hota tha. 

6. Kya tumhara kam ho gaya 
hai? 

7. Janab, khana abhi taiyar 
ho jata hai. 

8. Larke waqt par hazir kyuw 
nahi hote? 

9. Kal to shahr mew bara 
tamasha hua. 



Sentences. 

1. What's the matter? You 
were not born for this. 

2. Ihavebeentothepostoffice. 
(lit. I am come from the 
p. o., having been there). 

3. Where were you born? 

4. This child has been born 
ten days. 

5. When there were kittens, 
then there was a great show. 

6. Is your work done? 

7. Dinner'll be ready in a 
minute, sir. 

8. Why are not the boys 
present on time? 

9. There was a great spec- 
tacle in the city yesterday. 



8i 

10. Yih kis tarah ma'lum hua? 10. How was this found out? or, 

How did this become known. 

11. Is larke ke siwa aur koi n. Isn't there any other servant 
naukar hazir nahwz hai? present but this boy? No, Sir. 
NahiX garib-parwar. (No, nourisher of the poor). 

12. Panjab men achchhe seb 12. Good apples do not grow 
paida \\ah\n hote (or, nahi in the Punjab. 

hote hai;z). 

13. In logon ke larke bare be- 13. These people's children are 
rahm aur zalim hote hai. very merciless and tyrants 

(are by nature). 

14. Bachcha mota taza hota 14. The child went on getting 
gaya. fatter. 

15. Waha;z jakar unke larka 15. They went there and a child 
paida hua. was born to them (in their 

[house]). 

16. Ajmunshi'keghar larka hua. 16. A boy was born to the 

munshi to-day. 

1 7. Bara larka kharab ho gaya 1 7. The elder boy has gone bad. 
hai. \/ 

1 8. Ba'z desi dawaia?z kam ki 18. Some native medicines are 
hoti ha.in. useful. 

19. Urdu kiiaben aksar sasti 19. Urdu books are usually 
hoti hai#. cheap. 

20. Yih Hindi kitaberc barf sasti' 20. These Hindi books are very 
hai?z. cheap. 

21. Sahib aise kam se nakhush 21. Master does not like such 
hote hai. work. 

22. Kya meri kitab apke pas 22. Do you have my book? 
hai? 

23. Relparcharhnahaiaurwaqt 23. I have to catch (mount) the 
bahuthitanghai. Batkarne train and the time is short 
ki bhi fursat nahfw hai. (strait). I have not time to 

say a word. 



82 



24. Shahr ho ae ho? 

25. Kya dak ap ko mil gayi hai? 

26. Kya sab log ghargayehaiw? 

27. Ap khana kha chuke hai#? 

28. Ap ke kitne larke larkia# 
hai?z? 

29. Meri kitabe/z kiskepasham? 

30. Rel se bahut chizerc chori 
ho jati hak. 

31. Main abhi rawana hota hun. 

32. Ab kam shuru' hua hai, 
usko fursat na hogi. 

33. Mujhe Panjab ae das baras 
hue hai. 



34. Ajkal garmi bahut hoti hai. 

35. Main ap ke dekhne se bara 
khush hota hun. 

36. Jab baz ka bachcha tin char 
mahine ka ho jata hai, tab 
wuh ur jata hai. 

37. Aj sabho^ ka kam ho jaega. 

38. Jab yih kam ho jae, to aur 
duwga. 

39. Is chauki ke siwa do aur 
chahiyew. 

40. Janabkewasilesemerakam 



24. Have you been to the city? 

25. Have you gotten your mail? 
(post). 

26. Has every body gone home ? 

27. Have you finished dinner? 

28. How many boys and girls 
have you? 

29. Who has my books? 

30. Lots of things are stolen 
from the railway. 

31. I am starting at once. 

32. Work has begun now, he'll 
have no time. 

33. I have been in the Punjab 
ten years. (To me, come 
to the P., ten years have 
been). 

34. It is very warm these days. 

35. I am very pleased to see 
you. 

36. When the hawk's fledgling 
gets to be three or four 
months, it flies away. 

37. Everybody's work will be 
finished to-day. 

38. When this work is done, 
I'll give more. 

39. We want two chairs be- 
sides this. 

40. By your honour's means my 
work will be accomplished. 



ho jaega. 

Note that hai and hain are used to state particular facts, 
while general facts are given by "hota hai, hote hain. While 
"fond" means to become, yet this meaning is more usually 



- 83 - 

expressed by Jw jdnd. There is no Urdu word that can do 
duty for our have. 

In 15 "Unke", not "unko", since "ha?z", house, place, is 
understood, and "haV is locative. 

Vocabulary. Alfdz. 



Iaha72? 


where ? 


Baz 


some 


Bachcha 


child, young one 


Des 


Country, land 


Din 


day 


Desi 


native, domestic 


Bill* 


cat 


Dawai, da- 




Tamasha 


show, spectacle 


waiaw 


medicine-s 


Kam 


work 


Khush 


happy 


Kam ki, kam 


Na-khush 


unhappy, dis- 


ka, ke 


useful 




pleased 


Waqt 


time 


Aisa, aisi, aise 


such, this sort of 


Hazir 


present 


Charhna 


to mount,get up on 


Tarah 


manner, way 


Tang 


tight, narrow 


Siwa 


besides 


Fursat 


leisure time 


Aur 


more 


Bat karna 


to talk 


Garib-parwar 


poor-nourisher, 


Milna 


to meet, get 




Sir 


Chukna 


to finish 


Panjab 


Five -waters (ab) 


Rel 


rail way 


Seb 


apple 


Chori 


theft 


Be-rahm 


un-merciful 


Rawana 


started 


Zalim 


tyrant 


Baras 


year 


Mota, moti 


fat, thick 


Garm 


warm 


Moti 


a pearl 


Garmi 


warmth, heat 


Kharab 


bad, evil 


Mahma 


a month 


Dekhna 


to see 


Mah 


a month 


Baz 


a hawk 


Urna, ur jana to fly, fly away 



LESSON IX. NAUWA^V SABAQ. 

Another form of the present, more commonly used by 
native speakers to express continuous action. 



84 - 



1. Yih kya ho raha hai. 

2. Sahib khana kha rahe hai;/? 

3. Mai;zapnakamkarrahahu. 
Turn apna karo. 

4. Munshi apni man ko likh 
raha hai. 

5. Turn kya kar rahe ho? 

6. Mai/2 chauki bana raha hu. 

7. Murgi darakht ki taraf ur 
rahi hai. 

8. Kaunsa admi hamari taraf 
a raha hai? 

9. Ham log apni apni roti 
taiyar kar rahe ham? 

10. Larki shahr ki taraf kyun 
ja rahi hai? 

11. Alii pak rahe hai;/, abhi 
taiyar ho jaewge. 

12. Ap kidhar ja rahe hai;/? 

13. Wuh lakriarc khub jal rahi 
haiw. 

14. Turn yih chizew kahaw se 
la rahe ho? 

15. Munshi ji, bazar sea rahe ho? 

1 6. Jab mam bazar ki taraf ja 
raha tha to kya dekhta hun 
ki sahib bhi ja rahe haw. 

17. Turn log kal kya kar rahe 
the? 

1 8. Sahib de rahe the, par main 
ne na liya. 



1. What is this that is going on? 

2. Is the Sahib eating dinner? 

3. I'm doing my own work. 
You do yours. 

4. The munshi is writing to 
his mother. 

5. What are you doing? 

6. I am making a chair. 

7. The hen is flying toward 
the tree. 

8. What man is that coming 
toward us? 

9. We (folk) are getting our 
meals ready (that is, each is 
getting his own ready). 

10. Why is the girl going toward 
the city? 

11. The potatoes are cooking, 
and will be ready very soon. 

12. Where are you going? 

13. Those sticks are burning 
well. 

14. Where are you bringing 
these things from? 

15. Are you coming from the 
market, munshi? 

16. When I was going to the 
bazar, what should I see but 
that master, too, is going. 

17. What were you fellows doing 
yesterday? 

1 8. Sahib offered it to me, but 
I would not take it. (was 
giving it but I took it not.) 



- 85 - 



19. Jab malik batew kar raha 19. When the master was talk- 
tha (karta tha) larki gaur ing, the girl listened atten- 

se sunti thi. tively. 

Conjugation. 

Mai larko ke liye khana paka I am cooking dinner for the 



raha hun 
Tu larkow ke liye khana paka 

raha hai 
Wuh larke ke liye khana paka 

raha hai 
Ham apne larko;z ke liye khana 

paka rahe hai 
Turn apne larke ke liye roti paka 

rahe ho 
Ap apne apne larkow ke liye 

khana paka rahe hai 
Wuh hamare larko ke liye 

paka rahe haiw 

Mai;z larki'ow ke waste dal paka 

rahi thi 
Tu larkip;z ke waste dal paka 

rahi thi 
Wuh larkiow ke waste dal paka 

rahi thi 
Ham larkio ke waste dal paka 

rahi thin 
Turn us admi ke waste dal paka 

rahi thin 
Ap sab admioft ke waste paka 

rahi thin 
Wuh larke larkio# ke waste 

paka rahi thin 

Mam kutte se bahut darti thi, 
darta tha 



boys 
Thou art cooking dinner for the 

boys 
He is cooking dinner for the 

boy 
We are cooking dinner for our 

boys 
You are cooking a meal for 

your boy 
You are cooking dinner each 

for your own boys 
They are cooking for our boys 

I was cooking dal for the girls 

Thou wast cooking dal for the 

girls 
She was cooking dal for the 

girls 
We were cooking dal for the 

girls 
You were cooking dal for that 

man 
You were cooking for all the 

men 
They women were cooking for 

the children 
I was much afraid of the dog 



\ 



86 



Tu kutte se bahut darti thi, 

darta tha 
Wuh kuttora se bahut darti thi, 

darta tha 
Ham bille se bahut darti thin, 

darte the 
Turn billow se bahut darti thi, 

darte the 

Ap billi se bahut darti thi,darte the 
Wuh billia?z ham se bahut darti 

thin 



Thou wast much afraid of the 

dog 
She, he, was much afraid of 

the dogs 
We were much afraid of the 

tom-cat 
You were much afraid of the 

cats. 

You were much afraid of the cat 
Those (tabby) cats were much 



afraid of us. 

Though these continuative tenses are never given in the 
paradigms, yet they are most frequently used. Those in the 
past, tense with "raha, rahi" refer to some definite past time; e.g. 
Jab bachcha tha, to main kutte se bahut darta tha, when I 
was small, I was much afraid of a dog (for you could not 
use "dar raha tha, in this place); but, Jab ap ne kal kutte ko 
mara, main bahut dar raha tha. When you struck the dog 
yesterday, I was very much afraid. 

Vocabulary. Alfaz. 



Kaunsa? 


which one? 


Malik 


master 


Ki taraf 


toward 


Gaur 


attention 


Kyuw? 


why? 


Sunna 


to listen 


Alu 


potatoes 


Darna 


to fear 


Lakri 


wood 


Billa 


tom-cat 


Kidhar 


whither? 


Billi 


tabby-cat 


Kaha 


where? 


Kutta 


dog 


J< 


sir 


Kutti 


bitch 



LESSON X. DASWAV SABAQ. 

Uses of the Infinitive. 

i. Uska yahaw ana jana I. His coming (and going) here 
achchha nahi hai. is not a good thing. 



- 8 7 - 



2. Yih bat kahni achchhi nahi 
hai. 

3. Jhuth bolna bura hai. 

4. Is tarah se rotikhani achchhi 
nahiw hai. 

5. Mere wapis ane tak len 
den karna. 

6. Us waqt jan lena ki mera 
ana nazdik hai. 

7. Wahan kabhi na jana. 

8. Aj wahaw unke pas mat jao. 

9. Kal usko lekar zarur ana. 

10. Us admi ko sharab pine 
ki c adat hai. 

11. Mujh ko abhi jana hai. 

12. Mujhe kal usko khatt likhna 
hoga. 

1 3. Golf ka lagna tha ki ghora 
mar gaya. 

14. Wuh Bambai jane ko haiw. 

1 5 . Unke wilayat jane par yih 
kam ho jaega. 

1 6. Namaz ka bura kahna unko 
kyun bura laga? or, Namaz 
ko bura kahna etc. 

17. Mujh ko to zara bura lagne 
ki nahi#. 



2. It's not right to say that 
(this). 

3. It is evil to speak lies. 

4. It is not good [manners] to 
eat bread thus (in this 
fashion). 

5. Trade until I return. (Till 
my coming back, do taking 
and giving.) 

6. Know then that my coming 
is nigh. 

7. Never go there (but note 
"jao" not "jana" in 8). 

8. Do not go there to them 
to-day. 

9. You must surely bring him 
to-morrow. 

10. That man has the habit of 
drinking liquor. 

11. I have to go at once. (To 
me going is.) 

12. I shall have to write him 
to-morrow. 

13. The horse died the instant 
the ball struck him. 

~, b 

14. They are about to go to 

Bombay. > 

w 1 1 1 

1 5 . This work can be done when 

they go to foreign parts. 

1 6. Why should calling prayers 
"bura" (evil) offend her? 

17. It would never offend me 
a bit. 



1 8. Na mujh men qudrat kahne 
kf na tujh men taqat sunne 
ki rahegf. 

19. Parhne se sabaq yad nahfo 
hota. 

20. Baithne se mujhe thakao 
ho jata hai. 

21. Ham ap ka asbab bhejne 
hi ko the. 

22. Larka sabaq yad karne ke 
waste aya hai. 

23. Log uske marne ke liye ae 



24. Mai wahan jane ka nahm. 

25. Wuh larkf marne ke qarib 
hai. 

26. Mai;z tumko rakhne ka 
nahiw, magar,- han, tumharf 
madad karuwga. 

27. Aj turn ghar mat jana. 

28. Aj to shahr jana hai, na? 

29. Aya bazar se ata lene gayi 
hai. 

30. Kitab parhni chahiye. 

31. Kitab parhna chahiye tha, 
or, Kitab parhni chahiye thi. 

32. Khane men yih to bahut 
achchha hai, lekin dekhne 
men nahiw. 

33. Sahib ka likhna tha ki wuh 
aya. 



1 8. Neither should I have power 
to tell you, nor would you 
have strength to hear. 

19. A lesson can't be learned 
by reading. 

20. I get tired sitting (From 
sitting to me tiredness be- 
comes). 

21. We were just going to send 
your stuff. 

22. The boy has come to learn 
his lesson. 

23. People have come to beat 
him. 

24. I'll never go there. 

25. That girl is near death. 

26. I'll never employ you, but , 
yes, I will help you. 

27. Don't you go home to- 
day. 

28. You have to go to the city 
today, don't you? 

29. The ayah has gone to get 
meal from the bazar. 

30. You ought to read the book. 

31. You ought to have read 
the book. 

32. This is very good to eat, 
but not to look at. 

33. As soon as the master 
wrote, he came. 



- 89 - 

34- "Kalkyu#naaf?"Jablarko 34. "Why didlnotcomeyester- 
ko khilana hota, aur roti day?" When I had to feed 

pakani hoti aur ghar ka sab the children, and bake the 

kam ap se karna hua, kis bread, and do all the work 

tarah au? of the house myself, how 

could I come? 

35. Kal jo kam karne the mam 35. What jobs were to do yester- 
ne kiye. day, I did. 

36. Kitabo;2keparhneseankhe?z 36. (My) eyes have gone entirely 
bilkull kharab ho gayi hai;z. bad from reading books. 

Note the Urdu infinitive is used as our participle, "reading", 
called in British grammars "gerund". It may take an object or 
subject, and the object may be in the absolute form, as in 
2 > 3> 3> 3 1 etc -> or with "ko", as in 9, 16, 26, 34, or it may 
be with "ka, ke", as in 16, 23, 36 but the subject is always in 
the possessive form, as 6. Where the infinitive has an object, 
as in 2, 3, 4, 30, 31 etc., the infinitive may, or may not agree 
with it If it agrees it is called "Gerundive" by some. If a 
preposition governs the infinitive, it is always in the masculine 
form. As in 7 and 8, the future,, as contrasted with the present 
command takes the infinitive. In 29 is the infinitive of purpose. 
The "na" at the end of 28 is like the German "nicht wahrr" 
is it not so? 

Master all these forms, as they, or their equivalents, are 
in constant use. 

Diversification. 

Practice oral composition by substituting other infinitives 
in place of those in the sentences. In 11 und 12, use and, 
kaJind, bolnd, khdnd, likhnd, roti khdni, pind, wildyat jdnd, 
bkejnd, mdrnd, lend, dend, parhnd, pakdnd, baithnd, until perfect 
familiarity is secured. Try it several weeks in succession and 
do not take it for granted because you did it "last week", you 
can do it to-day. 



go 



In 23, use for ^^ske , mere, tere , tumhdre, liamdre, dp ke, 
un ke, larkon ke, larkion ke, kutton ke, sahib ke, larke ke, 

In 24, put in the correct form of the above infinitives, and 
make other changes as you see your need of perfect familiarity, 
and ready command of these words and Expressions. 

Vocabulary. Alfdz. 
Khana,khilana to eat, to feed 



Marna 
Marna 
Len den 



Wapis 
Nazdik 
Qarib 
Kabhf 



to die 
to kill, beat 
trade, "taking giv- 
ing", from lena 
dena 
back 
near 
near 
sometimes 



Kabhf. nahift never 
Sharab strong drink 

Admi man, person 

'Adat habit 

Khatt letter 



Likhna 


to write 




Gol 


round. 




Golf 


ball 




Ghora, ghori 


horse, mare 




Namaz 


prayers 




Bura, burf 


evil 




Qudrat 


power 




Taqat 


strength 




Raima 


to remain, rest 


Thakna 


to get tired 




Thakao 


tiredness 




Madad 


help 




Bilkull 


en-tirely 




Ap, ap se 


self, by one's 


self 


Yaha 


here 





LESSON XL GYARAWX^ SABAQ. 
Repeated Words. 



1. Ek ek paisa larkon ko do. 

2. Maiw ne admioTz ko sarhe 
tin, tin rupae diye. 

3. Main ne sawa das das rupae 
ko liye. 

4. Yih paune ath ath ane ko 
milte hak. 

5. Ap ne aj kya kya kam kiye 
hai? 



1. Give the boys a pice each. 

2. I gave the men three and 
one-half rupees each. 

3. I got them at Rs. 10/4 each. 

4. (You) get these at 7 3/4 
annas each. 

5. What various jobs have you 
done to-day? 



6. Kaun kaun admf aya hai? 

7. Kaun kaun admf ae hain? 

8. Age age mat jao, pichhe 
pichhe chalo. 

9. Pichhe pichhe mat ao, mere 
sath sath chalo. 

10. Bare bare larke ae, chhote 
na ae. 

11. Main ghar ghar gaya par 
roti na mill. 

12. Usnegao7zgao;zjakarma?zga 
par use na mila. 

13. Thik thik batao. Thik thik 
bolo. 

14. Ghore ko mar markar cha- 
laya tha. 

15. Sawar girte girte bacha. 

1 6. Larka to mar markar bacha. 

17. Darakht darakht se phal 
tora. 

18. Kuchh paise mere pas ham. 

19. Roti woti kha li, bhai? 
Roti tukra kha liya, bhai? 

20. Cha wa pi li, bhai? 

21. Aj ap ne bare bare, kam 
kiye hauz. 



6. Who has come? (Ans. John, 
Chas., Thos., etc.) 

7. Who have come? (Ans. 
Hindus, Moslems, etc.) 

8. Don't go ahead, come along 
behind. 

9. Don't come behind. Come 
along with me. 

10. The larger boys came, the 

smaller did not. 
n. I went to house (after) 

house, but got, no bread 

(bread met not). 

12. He asked for it at yillage 
after village, but did not 
get it (to him it met not). 

13. Tell it exactly. Speak the 
exact word. 

14. He beat the horse again and 
again to make it go (beat, 
beating made it go). 

1 5 . The rider almost fell (falling, 
falling, escaped). 

1 6. The boy nearly died. 

17. (He, They) plucked fruit 
from every tree. 

1 8. I have some money (cop- 
pers). 

19. Have you had dinner, 
brother? 

20. Have you drunk tea, 
brother? 

21. You've done a lot of big 
jobs to-day. 



22. Aj achchhe achchhe khane 
pakane haw. 

23. Us ke narm narm bal mujhe 
achchhe lagte haiw. 

24. Kitabe^ parh parhkar meri 
ankhen bilkull kharab ho 
gayi hai. 

25. Jab kabhi yih karo to meri 
yad men karo. 

26. Namaz men koi koi hazir 
hota hai. 

27. Koi na kof namaz men zarur 
awega. 

28. Wuh kabhi kabhi ata hai aur 
main kabhi na kabhi aunga. 



22. Good foods must be cooked 
today. 

23. I like the touch of her 
soft hair. (Her, his, soft 
hairs touch me nicely.) 

24. My eyes have gone entirely 
bad from much reading 
(reading and reading books). 

25. Whenever you do this, do 
it in my remembrance. 

26. A very few come to prayer. 



29. Jo jo ae do do am le jae. 

30. Kuchh na kuchh mil jaega. 



27. Some one or other will 
surely come to prayer. 

28. He comes sometimes and 
I shall come sometime or 
other. 

29. Whoever comes may take 
away two mangoes. 

30. (You) will get something 
or other. 

Note that repetition of the word repeats the idea. This may 
indicate distribution, as in i 6, emphasis as in 10, 21 24, or conti- 
nuance as in 8, 9, 1 1, 12, 1 3, 14 17. This repetition of sounds in 19 
and 20 is much like our "baby" talk, roly poly, hurly burly, pell mell. 

Diversification. The pupil must take these sentences, after 
they have been thoroughly committed, and change nouns, 
pronouns, verbs and adjectives to other persons, tenses, num- 
bers, and genders. The numerals must be at one's tongue's 
end. Skill in talking can only come as a result of the ability 
to diversify forms already mastered. 

Vocabulary. Alfdz. 

Bhai brother Jo who 

Age before jo jo whoever 



93 " 



Sath 

Gaow 

Ma;zgna 

Batana 

Chalna 

Chalana 

Girna 

Bachna 

Darakht 

Tukra 
Woti, wa 



with, beside 
village 

to ask for, beg 
to tell 
to go 

to make go 
to fall 

to escape, be 
saved, recover 
tree 

piece (of bread) 
meaningless fol- 
lowers of roti, cha 



Narm 


soft 


Arckh 


eye 


Jab 


when 


Kabhi 


sometime 


Jab kabhi 


whenever 


Yad 


memory 


Namaz 


prayers 


Kabhi kabhi 


sometimes 


Kabhi na kabhi 


sometime or 




other 


Am 


mango 


Phal 


fruit 



LESSON XII. BARAWA^V SABAQ. 
Conditional Sentences. Skarti Jumle. 

i. Agar wuh na ata, to mam I. If he had not come, I should 

not have beaten him. 

2. If you had not beaten him, 
he would not have died. 

3. If you had not made it 
right, I should never have 
given the price. 

4. Seeing the kite, the master 
said "If I had a gun, I'd kill 
it". 

5. If the girl had not said this, 
he would not have been 
displeased with her. 

6. If you had not shown me 
this horse I'd surely have 
bought another. 



usko na marta. 

2. Agar turn usko na marte, 
to wuh na marta. 

3. Agar turn isko thik na karte, 
to mai dam kabhi na deta. 

4. Chfl dekhkar Sahib ne kaha 
ki 'Agar mere pas banduq 
hotf, to maift mar deta. 

5. Agar larki yih na kahti to 
wuh us se na-khush na hota. 



6. Agar ap yih ghora mujhe 
na dikhate, to mai;z dusra 
zarur leta. 

7- Agar mere pas ghori na 
hoti, mai zarur paidal jati. 



7. If I had not had the mare, 
I'd surely have gone afoot. 



94 



8. Agar main un se larta, to 
mujh se ziyada na-laiq koi 
na tha. 

9 Agar ap is ka sabab mujh 
se na puchhte, to bahut 
bihtar hota (or, tha). 

10. Agar log usko chhura na 
dete, to main usko adh- 
mua karke chhorte. 

11. Mumkin na tha ki Masih 
maut ke qabze men rahta. 



8. If I had fought with him, 
no one could have been 
(was) more unworthy than I. 

9. If you had not asked me 
the reason of this, it would 
have been much better. 

10. If people had not rescued 
him, I'd have half killed him 
before I let him go. 

1 1 . It was impossible that Christ 
should remain in the grasp 
of death. 

12. If master were here, he would 
give you a setting right. 

13. If she were to fight with 
me, I'd beat her well. 

14. If I had been going to come, 
I'd have come without re- 
quest. 



1 2. Agar sahib yahan hote, to 
tumko thik kar dete. 

13. Agar wuh mujh se larti to 
main usko khub marti. 

14. Agar mujhe ana hota to 
main be puchhe giche a 
jata. 

Note that these conditions are contrary to fact and take 
that form of the verb, which is called "past conditional" (mazi 
sharti), but might better be called in English, past subjunctive. 
It is used not only in past conditions that are contrary to fact, 
but also for a present condition and resulting conclusion, both 
contrary to reality. If master were here (which he is not) he 
would set you right (which he does not). If she should fight 
with me (which she will not), I would beat her (which I shall not). 

This tense is also used in a class of allied idioms as 1 1 above. 
See, also, sentences, Lesson XIX. 

Hai or hain never occurs with this form of the verb. 

Vocabulary. Alfdz. 

Chil kite, hawk Paidal jana to go afoot 

Banduq gun Larna to fight 



95 



Sabab 
Asbab 

(plural) 
Puchhna 
Bihtar 
Chb.urana 
Chhorna 



reason 

luggage ("reasons" 

not "effects") 
to ask 

better [let go 

to deliver, make 

to let go 



Adh-mua 


half-dead 


Mumkin 


possible 


Qabza 


grasp, hold, power 


Maut 


death 


Agar 


if 


Masih 


Messiah, Christ 


Na-laiq 


un-fit, unworthy 



Diversification. 

In i, 2, 3, change one or both verbs by substituting any 
one of a dozen familiar verbs, until you thus substitute readily. 

LESSON XIII. TERAWAAT SABAQ. 
Conditional Sentences* Sharti Jumle. 

1. Agar wuh yahan ae, to I. If he come here, I may 
main dun. 

2. Agar wuh ae to main dunga. 

3. Agar kutta phir ae, to usko 
maro. 

4. Agar kam darust na karoge, 



to* main paisa na du;zgi. 

5. Agaryih bat sach ho, to ba- 
ra nuqsan, bara nuqsan 
hoga. 

6. Agar wuh kitab parhta ho, 
mat bulana. 

7. Agar sahib gaye ho, to 
gaye ho#. Kya pata hai? 

8. (Agar) Sach puchho, to 
main use be-wuquf samajh- 
ta hun 



give it. 

2. If he should come, I'll give it. 

3. If the dog come again, 
kill it. 

4. If you do not set the work 
right, I shall not give the 
money. 

5. If this be true (which I 
doubt) it will be a big loss, 
a big loss. 

6. If he is reading the book, 
don't call him. 

7. If the master has gone, why 
he's gone. What do I know 
about it? 

8. To tell the truth, I think 
him a fool (If you ask 
truth, I think him senseless.) 



* Where there is doubt, and the thing is assumed as possible, with 
the pres. subjunctive, I 8. Other ideas take other forms. 



- 96 ~ 



9. Agar yih char din ki bat 

hoti, to mujhe khabar na 

hoti? 
10. Jo (agar) usne rupae diye, 

to lete ana. 
n. Jo (agar) usne kitab di, to 

leni hogf. 

12. Jab (agar) main wahan gay a 
to mara jauwga. 

13. Jab (agar) wuh is baras 
khatre se bach gaya, to 
uski 'umr ban hogi. 

14. Agar unhoTz ne use mara 
ho, to jaldi mujhe khabar 
do. 

15. Agar log ae#, to girja. hoga. 

1 6. Agar log ae/zge to girja 
hoga. 

17. Agar turn us ke nazdik 
jaoge, to turn gunagarhoge. 

1 8. Agar yih kam us se ho 
saka, aur ba-khubf anjam 
diya, to main qaul o qarar 
karta huTz ki maw badshah 
se ziyada saluk karvwga. 

19. Agar wuh jata hai, to mai# 
bhi chalta hun. 

20. Agar main apne qaul par 
ata hu, to uski saltanat 
khak men mila deta hu. 

21. Agar ham se ho sakta, to 
ham manzur karte hai. 



9. If this had happened four 
days ago, should not I know 
it? (a thing of 4 days.) 

10. If he gives the money (and 
he will) then bring it along. 

11. If he gives the book, you'll 
have to take it. 

12. If I go there I shall be 
killed. 

13. If he escape (d) danger this 
year, he'll live long, (his 
life will be long.) 

14. If they have beaten him 
(as we hear) then give me 
word quickly. 

15. If people come, there will 
be church. 

1 6. If people will come, there 
will be church service. 

17. If you go near him (it), you 
will be blameworthy (sin- 
ners). 

1 8 If this work can be done 
by him, and he brings it to 
a (good) end, then I promise 
you that I will treat him 
better than (could) any king. 

19. If he is going (as you say), 
then I, too, will go along. 

20. If I come according to my 
promise, then I'll mingle his 
kingdom in the dust. 

21. If we could we could. 



97 



22. Agar us waqt pahwzche 
horc, tab yih bat kah sakte 
the. 

23. Agar bachche ke marne 
se pahle chaloge, to kuchh 
faida hoga. 

24. Agar kof us ke Masih hone 
ka iqrar kare, to kharij ho. 

25. Agar turn ne mujhe jana 
hota, to mere bap ko bhf 
jante. 



22. If they had (were) arrived 
at that time, then they 
could have said this. 

23. If you will go ere the child 
die, then it will be of some 
avail. 

24. If any one confesses him 
to be the Messiah, let him 
be expelled. 

25. If ye had known me, ye 
would have known my 
father also. 



Vocabulary. Alfdz. 


Nuqsan 


loss, damage 


Khabar 


news 


Waqif 


knowing 


Qaul 


word 


Waquf 


perception,know- 


Qarar 


promise 




ledge 


Saltanat 


a sultan-dom 


Be-wuquf 


a fool 


Khak 


dust 


Khatra 


danger 


Khaki 


dust colour 


c Umr 


age, life 


Milna 


to get, mix 


Gunah 


sin 


Milana 


to mix up 


Gunagar 


sinner 


Manzur 


approved 


Ba 


with 


Sakna 


to be able 


Khub 


well, excellent 


Saluk 


treatment 


KhiiW 


excellence 


Puchhna 


to ask 


Anjam 


end 


Durust 


correct 


Bulana 


to call, cause to 


Iqrar 


confession 




speak 


Faida 


advantage 



LESSON XIV. CHAUDAWA^V SABAQ. 
Chalnd and j and. 

1. Hawa jidhar ko chahti hai, I. The wind goeth to whither 
chalti hai. it wishes. 

2. Meri gharf nahiw chalti. 2. My watch won't go. 

7 



- 98 - 



3. Mera admi sath nahin jata. 3. 

4. Yih rupaya bazar men nahin 4. 
chalta. 

5. Yih banduq nahin chalti. 5. 

6. Chaukiaw le jao. Chaukia;z 6. 
le chalo. 

7. Ghora le chalo. 7. 

8. Uski ta/zg men itna. dard 8. 
hai ki wuh chal nahin sakta. 

9. Usko itna kam par gaya 9. 
hai ki wuh nahi ja sakta. 

10. Kab jaoge? (or) Kab cha- 10. 
loge? 

11. Main yaha se chha baje II. 
chaluwga aur \vahan pa- 
huwchkar Daktar ke pas 
jald jau^ga. 

12. Main shahr chala hun, turn 12. 
bhi chaloge? 

13. Yih ghora khub chalta hai. 13. 

14. Yih sarak kidhar jati hai? 14. 

15. Yihbat sunkar naukar chal 15. 
diya. 

16. Yih nahr kidhar jati hai? 16. 

17. Chalti chakki dekhke wuh 17. 
ro para. 

1 8. Sham ke waqt bazar jana 18. 
mana c hai. 

19. Bhir ke sabab chalna bahut 19. 
mushkil hai. 

20. Main roz shahr jata hun. 20. 
Ab jata hun. 



My man won't go along. 
This rupee won't pass in 
the bazars. 

This gun won't go off. 
Take the chairs away. 
Bring the chairs along. 
Bring the horse along. 
There is so great a pain 
in his leg that he is not 
able to walk. 

So much work has fallen 
to him that he cannot go. 
When will you go? (or) 
When will you go (with 
me)? 

I shall start from here at 
six o'clock and having arri- 
ved there, will go at once 
to the Civil Surgeon's. 
I am started to the city. 
Will you go too? 
This horse goes finely. 
Whither does this road lead? 
Hearing this the servant 
started off. 

Where does this canal goto? 
Seeing the moving mill, he 
wept (fell a weeping). 
It is forbidden to go to the 
bazar in the evening. 
It is difficult going on ac- 
count of the crowd. 
I go to the city daily. I 
am going now. 



99 



21. Shari'at par chalna bahut 
mushkil hai. 

22. Wuh gao# ko gaya hai. 

23. Wuh gacw ko chala. hai. 

24. Wuh gao# ko chala gaya 
hai. 

25. Sahib ke samne meri bat 
nahi# chalti. 



21. It is hard to keep the law 
(to move on the law). 

22. He has gone to the village. 

23. He is starting to the village. 

24. He has gone to the village. 

25. My word has no weight 
with the gentleman, (goes 
not before him). 

26. I'll take you to the king. 



27. I'll take this horse to the 
king. 

28. Sahib goes strictly by rule. 

29. All the people have gone. 



26. Main turn ko badshah ke 
pas le chalu;2ga. 

27. Main is ghore ko badshah 
ke pas le chaluTzga. 

28. Sahib qanun par pure pure 
chalte ham. 

29. Sab log chale gaye ham. 

Note that chalnd means "to move", so that things that 
do not move in their "going", can not be used with chalnd. It 
may be that there is "will" implied in "jana". There is 
usually, but perhaps not always, the idea of accompaniment 
in chalna. 

Ghari watch, clock, a little water jar, which when put 

into a larger jar, sank, as it had a hole in the 
bottom, in 24 minutes, and this constitutes a 
"ghari" of time, and this, later, was applied to 
the watch, or clock, as time measurers. 



Hawa 


wind 


Shari'at 


law (moral) 


Tag, tatzgen leg, legs 


Samne 


before 


Dard 


pain 


Badshah 


king 


Chakki 


hand-mill 


Qanun 


rule, civil law 


Sham 


evening 


Pura, puri, 




Mana 


forbidden 


pure 


full, entire 


Bhir, barf, 


crowd 


Sarak 


highway 


Mushkil 


difficult 







V 



IOO 



LESSON XV. PANDRAWA^V SABAQ. 
Exercises in Lagnd, 



1. Pata nahiw lagta. 

2. Kyun nahiw lagta? Aj hi 
laga lo. 

3. Ghar ghar se laga hai. 

4. Mujhe bahut dar lagta hai. 

5. Yih bat tumko achchhi 
nahfw lagti. 

6. Bachchow ki bate mithf 6. Children's sayings please 



1. I cannot find out. (Trace 
does not touch.) 

2. Why can't you? Find out 
this very day. (Why doesn't 
it "lag"? Make it "lag"). 

3. House touches (with) 
house. 

4. I'm very much afraid. 

5. You do not like this affair. 



lagti haiw. 

7. Uske sakht chot lagi. Chot 
lagi? 

8. Ghora age gari ka laga hua 
hai. 

9. Yih kitab tumhe?z kahaw se 
hath lagi? 



people. 

7. He was badly hurt. Did 
you get hurt? 

8. The horse has been driven 
. before. 

9. Where did you get this 
book? 

10. Tala darwaze par laga hua 10. A padlock is fastened on 
hai. the door. 

11. Bag me# tarah tarah ke n. In the garden all sorts of 
bute lage hai#. shrubs are planted, (or, 

various sorts of). 

12. Sahib ke kam me kitne 12. How many labourers are 
mazdur lage hai#; on the gentleman's work? 

13. Wuh sawere nikla taki apne 13. He went out early that he 
bag mew mazdur lagawe. might set labourers to work 

in his orchard. 

14. Is kothi par kitna rupaya 14. How much money was spent 
laga hai? on this house? 

15. Ji se ji laga hai. 15. Heart answers to heart. 



IOI 

1 6. Uske kurte men paiwand 16. He has a patch on his 
laga hai. shirt. 

17. Takhte par kya ishtihar 17. What notice is (fastened) 
laga hai? on the board? 

1 8. Wuh apne kam men laga 18. He sticks to his work, 
rahta hai. 

19. Sab masalih lag chuka hai. 19. All materials are spent. 

20. Sahib ke ane ki ummed 20. We are expecting the gen- 
lagi hui hai. tleman. 

21. Use ilzam kyun laga? /2i. Why was he accused? 

22. Sab chizen durusti se lag f 22. All things are set in order, 
gayf ham. 

23. Lahaur jane men do ghante 23. It will take two hours to 
lagewge. reach Lahore. 

24. Dhup men attkhen nahiw 24. (My)eyes won't stand the 
lagtiTZ. sun. 

25. Shahr men ban ag lag 25. There is a big fire in the 
gayi hai. city. 

26. Kot ko kitna kapra lagega? 26. How much cloth will it take 

for a coat? 

27. Dimak dari ko lag gayf 27. The white ants are at the 
hai. . carpet. 

28. Munshf sahib ke munh laga 1/28. The munshi has the ear 
hai. of the sahib. 

29. Char din se mujhe sardf 29. I have been chilly for four 
lagti hai. days. 

30. Isdarakhtparbare achchhe 30. This tree bears beautiful 
phul phal lagte hai#. flowers and fruit. 

31. Us ko bimari lag gayi hai. 31. He has contracted the 

disease. 
y 

32. Tambaku mere munh lag 32. I've 'acquired a taste for 
gaya hai. tobacco. 

33. Is hisab men ban galati 33. There is a big mistake in 
lag gayf hai. this account. 



IO2 



34- Is lakri par pital laga do. 

35. Ihub zor lagao. 

36. Mali, sab butow ko qatar 
mew lagao. 

37. Dawai uske hath par lagao. 

38. Dawai us ki a?zkh men dalo. 

39. Mez lagao. (Palang, dari, 
sab chizew). 

40. Is lifafe par do paise ka. 
tikat lagao. 

41. Itni der kyun lagi? Phir 
mat lagana. 



42. Us ne mere bhai se dosti 
lagai hai. 

43. Uske chabuk lagao. (kore 
lagao.) 

44. Ji lagakar Ihuda ka kam 
karna chahiye. 

45. Ilzam na lagaya karo. 

46. Baggi par rang lagana 
chahiye. 

47. Apna ikka dusre ke sath 
lagao. 

48. Mera unke sath kya lagao 
hai? 

49. Mai unse alag (a + lag) 
rahta hun. 



34. Fasten the brass to this 
wood. 

35. Exert yourself. Put to your 
strength. 

36. Gardener, put all these 
plants in a row. 

37. Put the medicine on his 
hand. 

38. Put the medicine in his eye. 

39. Set the table. (Make the 
bed. Put down the carpet. 
Put everything in place). 

40. Put a two pice stamp on 
this envelope. 

41. Why have you spent so 
much time? Don't do it 
again. (Why so great late- 
ness spent?) 

42. He has made friends with 
my brother. 

43. Whip him. (Scourge him). 

44. One ought to do God's 
work with the whole heart, 
(putting the mind to.) 

45. Do not make accusations. 

46. You ought to paint the 
buggy. 

47. Put your ekka alongside 
the other. 

48. What have I to do with 
them? 

49. I stay apart from them. 



103 

5<3. Mera dil yahaw nahiw lagta. 50. I'm homesick. I don't like 

this place. 

51. Kot ko mitti lag gayi hai. 51. There's earth on your coat. 
Jhar do. Dust it off. 



Vocabulary. Alfdz. 


par 


fear 


Ishtihar 


notice 


Mitha, -i, -e 


sweet 


Masalih 


spices, condi- 


Sakht 


hard, harsh 




ments, building 


Chot 


injury 




materials 


Hath 


hand 


Chukna 


to finish 


Tala 


lock 


Ilzam 


accusation 


Darwaza 


door, gate 


Durust 


correct 


Bag 


orchard, garden 


Durusti 


correctness 


Buta 


shrub, tree 


Ghanta 


hours, bell 


Mazdur 


hired one 


Dhup 


sunshine 


Mazduri 


hire 


Ag 


fire 


Sham 


evening 


Sardi 


a cold 


Subh 


morning 


Phul 


flower 


Dimak 


white ant 


.Phal 


fruit 


Darakht 


tree 


Hisab 


account 


Bimar 


sick 


Zor 


strength 


Bimarf 


sickness 


Qatar 


line 


Pi'tal 


brass 


Lifafa 


. envelope 


Mali 


gardener 


Bhai 


brother 


Der 


lateness 


Chabuk 


whip 


Dosti 


friendship 


Ikka, ekka, 




Lagao 


put on, n. relation 


yakka 


one horse cart 


Sawere 


early. 


Dil 


heart 


Nikalna 


to go out 


Muwh 


ywrouth 


Ji 


heart 


Mez 


table 


Kurta 


shirt 


Palang 


bed 


Paiwand 


patch 


Tambaku 


tobacco 


Takhta 


board, slate 


Jharna 


to sweep, dust 



V 



IO4 

Conjugation. 

Mam das baje roti pakane lagta I begin to cook the meal at 

him, lagti him ten o'clock. 

Tu das baje roti pakane lagta hai, Thou beginnest to cook at ten. 

lagti hai. 

Wuh das baje roti pakane lagta He, She, begins to cook at ten. 

hai, lagti hai. 

Ham das baje roti pakane lagte We begin cooking at ten. 

ham, lagti ham. 

Turn das baje roti pakane lagte, You begin cooking at ten. 

lagti, ho. [lagti, ham. 

Ap das baje roti pakane lagte, You begin baking bread at ten. 

Wuh das baje roti pakane lagte, They begin baking bread at 

lagti, ham. ten. 

Mam kal subh likhne lagimga I shall begin writing to-morrow 

lagimgi. morning. 

Tu kal subh likhne lagega, la- Thou wilt begin writing in the 

gegf. morning. 

Wuh kal subh likhne lagega, He, She, will begin writing to- 

lagegi. morrow morning; 

Ham kal subh likhne lage^ge, We'll begin writing to-morrow 

lagewgi. morning. 

Turn kal subh likhne lagoge, You'll begin writing to-morrow 

lagogi. . morning. 

Ap kal sawere likhne lage^ge, You'll begin writing early to- 

lage/zgi. morrow. 

Wuh kal fajr likhne lage^ge, They'll begin writing to-morrow 

lageTzgi. morning. 

Mam kal sawere banane laga I began to make it early yester- 

tha, lagi thi. day. 

Tu kal sawere banane laga Thou didst begin early yester- 

tha, lagi thi. day to make it. 

Wuh kal sawere banane laga He, She, began early yester- 

tha, lagi thi. day to make it. 



Wuh parson sham banane laga 

tha, lagi thi. 
Ham parson banane lage the, 

lagi thin. 
Turn parson sham ko banane 

lage the, lagf thin. 
Ap parson sham ko banane 

laga tha, lagi thi. 
Wuh parso sham ko banane 

lage the, lagi thi#. 



He, She, began to make it day 
before yesterday evening. 

We began to make it day be- 
fore yesterday. 

You began at even, day before 
yesterday, to make it 

You began at even, day before 
yesterday, to make it. 

You began at even, day before 
yesterday, to make it. 



LESSON XVI. SOLAWAW SABAQ. 
Passives. 



1. Dekha jaega. (Usko dekha 
jaega.) 

2. Mujhe ap ka zer saya diya. 
jae. 

3. Wuh shahr ke pas dekhe 
gaye the. 

4. Qismat se lara nahm jata. 

5. Mango to tumhen diya 
jaega. Khatkhatao to turn- 
hare waste khola jaega. 

6. Kyu#ki jis ke pas hai use 
diya jaega, magar jis ke pas 
nahi;z hai, us se wuh bhi 
jo uske pas hai, le liya jaega. 

7. Madrase ka bandkiya jana 
unk liye bari taklif ki bat 
thi. 

8. Makkhankalbhejagayatha. 

9. Pachas admi larai me mare 
gaye. 



1. I'll see about it. (If 11 be 
seen to.) 

2. May I be taken under your 
(shadow) care. 

3. They were seen near the 
city. 

4. One can't fight with fate. 

5. Ask and it shall be given 
unto you. Knock and it 
shall be opened for you. 

6. For whoso has to him shall 
be given, but whoso has 
not, from him even that he 
has shall be taken away. 

7. The school's being closed 
was a great vexation to 
them. 

8. The butter was sent yester- 
day. 

9. Fifty men were killed in the 
fight. 



io6 



10. Yih kamroz roz kiya jatahai. 

11. Yih kam mujh se nahiw 
kiya jata, or, Yih kam mujh 
se nahin hota. 

12. Kya wuh rotian unko di 
gayi hain. 

13. Tin lote laye gaye hain. 

14. Aj mujh se roti khai nahi 
jati. 

15. Sab darwaze band kiye gaye 



1 6. Agar us taraf le jao, to 

ghora mara jaega. 
17. Chauki kyun nabheji gayi? 
1 8. Chauki kyu# nahin bheji 

gayi? 

19. Roti larke ko kyun nahin 
di gayi? 

20. Ghora kyuw na lay a gay a? 

21. Agar maiw wahan gayi, to 
mari jauwgi. 

22. Yih mera bara larka "Qazf" 
kahlata hai. 

23. Wuh is larai mew bheja gaya 
taki wahan par jakar mara 
jae. 

24. Zarur hai ki yih kam aj 
kiya jae. 

25. Chahiye ki yih thag aj hi 
mara jae. 

26. Lazim tha ki yih bat ap 
se puchhi jae. 



10. This work is done daily. 

11. I can't do this work. 



12. Have those loaves been 
given them? 

13. Three jugs have been 
brought. 

14. I can't eat to-day. 

15. All the doors have been 
shut? 

1 6. If you take him that direc- 
tion, the horse will be killed. 

17. Why wasn't the chair sent? 

1 8. Why has not the chair 
been sent 

19. Why has not the bread 
been given to the boy? 

20. Why was not the horse 
brought? 

21. If I went there, I'd be killed. 

22. My elder boy is called 
"Judge". 

23. He was sent into the fight 
that he might go there and 
be killed. 

24. It is imperative that this 
work be done to-day. 

25. It is fitting that this thug 
be killed to-day. 

26. It was proper that this thing 
be asked of you. 



Vocabulary. Alfdz. 

Zer under Madrasa 

Saya shadow Taklif 

Qismat Kismet, fate Makkhan 

Khatkhatana to knock Kahlana 

Kholna to open Zanir 

Pas near, by Lazim 



school 

vexation 

butter 

to be called 

necessary 

proper,obligatory. 



LESSON XVII. SATARWA^V SABAQ. 
Passives and Causals. 



1. Kis ne yih bartan tora? 

2. Memsahiba, yih to mujh 
se tuta. 

3. Alu pak gaye ham? Pak 
gaye. 

4. Us ne ban sakht mar khai. 



5. Mera hath kat gaya hai. 

6. Mera paow kata gaya 
hai. 

7. Yih lafz kis tarah isti'mal 
hota hai? 

8. Munshi log isi tarah se 
isti'mal karte haiw. 

9. Sahib Urdu parhte haiw, 
munshi unko parhata hai, 
kyuki mishan (sarkar) 
parhwati hai. 

io. Yih shart hui ki jo hare 
uske kan kate jae. 



1. Who broke this dish? 

2. Madam, I broke it (acciden- 
tally). 

3. Are the potatoes cooked? 
They are. 

4. He was very badly beaten 
(ate a very harsh beat- 
ing). 

5. My hand has been cut off 
(accidental). 

6. My foot has been cut off. 

7. How is this word used? 

8. The munshis use it thus. 

9. Sahib is studying Urdu, 
the munshi is teaching him 
for the mission (the Gov't) 
makes him learn it 

io. This wager (condition) was 
laid that whoever lose, his 
ears be cut off. 



io8 



n. Baba so raha hai, kyu^ki n. 
aya ne sawere sula diya, 
is liye ki memsahiba roz isi 
waqt aya se sulwa deti ham. 

12. Ap ki gari ban rahi hai? 12. 
Han, mistri Ibrahim bana 
raha hai. Main apna kull 
lakri ka kam usi se banwata 
hun. 

13. Suji ata, alii, yahan bikte 13. 
hain. 

14. Yih bania ajkal kapra sasta 14. 
bech raha hai, is liye ki 
mausim guzarne par dusre 
dukandar apna mal yahi 
bikwate haw. 

15. Masih salib par dusrcw ke 15. 
liye mar gaya. 

1 6. Sipahio^ ne usko mara tha 16. 
(mar dala). 

17. Yahudlcw ne milkar Pilatus 17. 
ke hukm se usko marwaya 

tha. 

18. Jab sahib darwaze khul- 18. 
wane lage, to bera kholne 
gaya, lekin wuh ap se ap 
khul gaye. 



19. Jaldi uthkar yih sanduq 
utha lo, kyu^ki main is 
kamare se sab chizen uthwa 
deti hun. 



19. 



The baby is sleeping, for 
ayah put it to sleep early, 
because madam has him 
daily put to sleep by the 
ayah at this time. 
Is your carriage making? V' 
Yes, master- workman Abra- 
ham is making it. I have 
him do all my wood work. 

Soojee, meal, and potatoes 

are sold here. 

This shopkeeper is selling 

cloth cheap these days, for 

when the season is over 

(passing), other shopkeepers 

have their goods sold 

here. 

Christ died on the cross 

for others. 

The soldiers killed him. 

The Jews agreeing together 
(meeting) had him killed by 
Pilate's order. 
When the master began 
to have the doors opened, 
the bearer went to open 
them then, but they came 
open themselves. 
Get up quickly and take 
up this box for I am having 
all these things taken out 
from this room. 



109 



20. Chore ne pani pi liya hai? 

21. Ha, mam har subh nau 
baje pilata hun, kyuVzki 
malik safar se pahle pilwate 



22. Ya to is chauki ko bhejo 
ya lejao. Zarur hai ki aj 
pahutfch jae. Aj pahuw- 
chaoge? Pahuwchauwga. 

23. Main ne cha pi li, aur us 
ko bhi pila di. 

24. Aya ne roti kha li aur usne 
baba ko bhi khila diya hai. 



25. Chahetumkatochahekatao, 
zarur hai ki aj kat jae. 

26. Khah (khwah) larka ap is 
bandobast ko tore, khah 
kisi se torae, aj hi tut jaega. 

27. Chahe larkia kutte ko aj 
beche^ chahe kisi naukar 
se bikwae?2, aj zarur bike. 

28. Tota kis tarah tumhare hath 
se chhuta? 

29. Mai;z ne to nahin chhora, 
baba ne mere hath se 
chhuraya. 



20. Has the horse been watered 
(drunk)? 

21. Yes, I water him every 
morning at nine o'clock* 
for the master has him 
watered before a journey. 

22. Either send this chair or 
take it. It must be there 
to-day. Will you get it 
there to- day?( Will you cause 
it to arrive?) I will. 

23. I drank tea and gave to him 
too (also made him drink). 

24. The ayah has eaten her 
food and has also fed the 
child. (Note the "li" for 
her own food, and the 
"diya" for the other's.) 

25. Whether you cut it or have 
it cut, it must be cut to- 
day. 

26. Whether the boy breaks 
this arrangement himself, 
or has some one else break 
it, it will be broken to-day. 

27. Whether the girls sell the 
dog to-day or have some 
servant sell it, it must be 
sold to-day. 

28. How did the parrot get 
out of your hand? 

29. I did not let it go, the child 
took it from my hand. 



no 



30. Un char larkow ne bari 
bharf lakri uthai. 

31. Ha, ham ne charow larkow 
se uthwai thi. 

32. Malik negaemujhsemurwai, 
aur maiw ne bahuteri mori, 
par wuh na mun. 

33. Sardar mujh se murgiaVz 
nikalwate the, aur go main 
ne bahut koshish ki ki unko 
nikal dun, wuh na nikli. 





Vocabulary. Alfdz. 


Bartan 


vessel, dish Bilkull 


Tutna 


to break (itself) Suji 


Torna 


to break some- 




thing Ata 


Torwana 


to have break 


Katna 


to be cut, cut off Parhna 


Katna 


to cut, bite Parhana 


Katwana 


to have cut Parhwana 


Paow 


foot, feet Harna 


Isti'mal 


use Sona 


Bikna 


to sell (neuter) Sulana 


Bechna 


to sell (active) Sulwana 


Bikwana 


to have sell 


Pina 


to drink Banna 


Pilana 


to water, make Banana 




drink Banwana 


Pilwana 


to have watered Marna 


Roz 


day, daily Marna 


Mistari 


master -workman Marwana 


Kull 


whole, entire Uthna 



30. Those four boys picked up 
a very heavy stick. 

31. Yes, we had the four boys 
pick it up. 

32. Its master had me head 
off (turn) the cow, and I 
tried to (turned her a lot) but 
she did not turn (would not). 

33. The chief was having me 
put out the chickens, and 
although I made a great 
effort, they did not go out. 



entirely 

meal of wheat 

germ 

coarse wheat 

meal 

to read, study 

to teach 

to cause to read. 

to lose 

to sleep 

to put to sleep 

to have one put 

another to sleep 

to be made 

to make 

to have made 

to die, be beaten 

to, kill, beat 

to cause to beat 

to get up 



Ill 



Uthana 

Uthwana 
Bania 

Dukan 

Dukan-dar 

Mausim 

Salib 

Sipahi 

Sanduq 

Safar 

Ya . . . . ya 

PahuTzchna 

Pa.huncha.na. 

Khana, kha 

lena 

Khila dena 
Khilwana 



Tota, toti 



to pick up, make 

get up 

to make pick up 

shopkeeper, 

money-lender 

shop, store 

shop-keeper 

Season 

Cross, crucifix 

sepoy, soldier 

box 

journey 

either ... or 

to arrive 

to make arrive 

to eat 

to feed another 
to have one feed 
another 
parrot 



Chhutna 

Chhorna 

Chhurana 

Murna 

Morna 

Murwana 

Chahe ... chahe Either 

Ihwah . . . khwah Either . 

Khah...khah Either. 

Chaho . . . chaho Either . 



to get away 
to let away 
to make let go 
to turn 
to make turn 
to have turn 

. or 
. or 
or 
or 



Nikalna 
Nikalna 
Nikalwana 
Sardar 

Koshish 
Khulna 
Kholna 
Khulwana 



to go out 
to put out 
to make put out 
chief, head -ser- 
vant 

endeavour 
to come open 
to make open 
to have some one 
open something. 



Conjugation. 
Passive, Present Indicative and Subjunctive. 



Pani garm kiya jata hai 
Pani garm ho raha hai 
Chaukia taiyar kf jatf haiti 

Yih kam abhi kiya jae 
Yih bat abhi ki jae 
Log pak saf kiye jae 
Yih larkiaw abhi parhai jae 
Yih mere kapre aj dhoe jaew 



Water is being warmed 
Water is getting warm 
The chairs are being made 

ready 

Let this work be done at once 
Let this thing be done at once 
Let the people be cleansed now 
Let the girls be taught at once 
Let these clothes of mine be 

washed to-day 



112 

Mere kapre dusre tisre roz dhoe My clothes are washed every 

jate haiw day or so (lit. second third). 

Mere kapre kue?z par dhoe ja My clothes are being washed 

rahe hai/z at the well. 

Passive Future. 

Mai/z waha par jakar mara I shall go there and be killed 

jautfga (mari jau/zgi) 

Tu waha?z par jakar mara jaega Thou wilt go there and be killed 

(mari jaegi) 

Wuh waha/z par jakar mara He, She will go there and be 

jaega (mari jaegi) killed 

Ham waha/z par jakar mare We'll go there and be killed 

jae/zge (mari jaewgiw) 

Turn waha?z par jakar mare You'll go there and be killed 

jaoge (mari jaogiw) 

Ap waha?z par jakar mare You'll go there and be killed 

jae#ge (mari jae?zgi;z) 

Wuh waha>z par jakar mare They'll go there and be killed 

jae#ge (mari jaewgi/z). 

Past Tense Passive. 

Main kal mara gaya (mari gayi) I was beaten yesterday 

Tu parso?z mara gaya (mari gayi) Thou wast beaten day before 

yesterday 

Wuh atarsow mara gaya (mari She, He was beaten day be- 

gayi) fore that 

Ham aj mare gaye (mari gayi;z) We were beaten to-day 

Turn kal mare gaye (mari You were beaten yesterday 
^ gayiw) 

Ap parson mare gaye (mari You were beaten day before 

gayi/z) yesterday 

Wuh parsal mare gaye (mari They were beaten last year. 

gayi/z) 






LESSON XVIII. ATHARAWA^V SABAQ. 
Relative Pronouns. Ism-i-zamir. 



i. Jo ghora kal hamko mila 
tha, wuh bahut hi achchha 
hai. 



2. Jis admi ne mujh ko mara, 
wuh mera bhai hai. 

3. Jis 'aurat se ap ne meri 
kitab li, wuh meri aya hai. 

4. Jis larke ko hazur ne paise 
diye, wuh mere bhai ka 
beta hai. 

5. Wuh dukandar jinhow ne 
ap ke pas kitabew bheji 
ham, kutub-farosh hai#. 

6. Wuh ghorejinkoapne bazar 
me% dekha, wuh Arabi ham. 

7. Khudawand ne un admio/z 
ko, jo uske pichhe ho chale 
the, kaha ki Jo koi meri 
pairawi karna chahe, wuh 
apni salib roz utha le. 

8. Jo lafz ap ne abhi isti c mal 
kiya, uske kya ma c ne hai? 

9. Jo ho, so ho. 

10. Jo aya malamal hokar chala 
gaya. 



II. Jo huzur ki marzi, mujhe 
manzur hai. 



1. The horse we got yester- 
day is a very good one. 
(What horse yesterday to 
us met, he is very good) 

2. The man that beat me is 
my brother. 

3. The woman from whom you 
got my book is my ayah. 

4. The boy to whom you gave 
the coppers is my brother's 
son. 

5. Those shopkeepers who 
sent you the books are 
book-sellers. 

6. Those horses that you saw 
in the city are Arabians. 

7. The Lord said to the men 
who were following him, 
Whoever wishes to follow 
me, let him take up his 
cross daily. 

8. What is the meaning of that 
word you used just now? 

9. Let come what may, or, 
What will be, will be. 

10. Whoever came, went away 
rich. (Chala gaya though 
passive in form, cannot be 
meaning). 

11. Whatever is your honour's 
will, is acceptable to me. 



114 



12. Tab wuh firishta, jis ne us 
se bate/z kin, chala gaya. 

13. Wuh turn se aisi batew 
kahega, jin se turn aur 
tumhara gharana najat 
paega. 

14. Jo jaisa kam karega, waisa. 
paega. 

[wuhi karo. 

15. Jo kuchh wuh turn se kahe, 

1 6. Jaisa kiya waisa paya 

[le lo. 

17. Jitna turn ko chahiye, utna 

1 8. Jab tak sans tab tak as. 

19. Wuhi Sindbad jise turn mua 
jante ho, main hu#. 

20. Jin larkow ne mere larke 
ko mara, wuh bazar ke 
sharir larke hai. or, Wuh 
larke jinhow ne mere larke 
ko mara, bazar ke sharir 
larke hai//. 

2 1 . Wuh larka jo kal mujhe gall 
de raha tha, mam ne usko 
khub mara. or, Jo larka kal 
mujhko gali de raha tha, 
main ne usko khub mara. 

22. Jis jis ka lena dena hai likha 
do to jiska jitna munasib 
hai, diya jaega. 



12. Then the angel, that had 
spoken to him, went away. 

13. He will tell you such things 
from which you and your 
household shall obtain sal- 
vation. 

14. Whatever work whosoever 
does, according to that he 
will obtain. (Each one will 
receive his deserts. 

15. Do whatever he tells you. 

1 6. As he did, so he got. He 
got tit for that. 

17. Take as much as you need. 

1 8. While there is life there is 
hope. 

19. That Sindbad that you 
thought (think) dead, I am 
he. 

20. Those boys who beat my 
boy are the bad boys of 
the street. 



21. I beat that boy, who was 
blackguarding me yester- 
day, most thoroughly. 



22. Write down (to me) the 
credits and debits of every 
one, and whatever is proper 
shall be given to each one. 



23. Jidhar ko moro, udhar ko 
jata hai. 

24. Jis kisi ke pas men' kitab 
hai, wuh jaldi mujh ko de. 

25. Wuh admi jis se turn ne 
roti li, wuh bara bad- 
ma'ash admi hai. 

26. Ap kaunsa kapra chahte 
hai;/? 

27. In men se ap ko kaunsi 
kursi chahiye? 

28. Ap kaunse admioTZ ko 
puchhte hai? 

29. Yih kahe ki bani hai? or, 
Yih kis chiz ki bani hai? 

30. Yih lakri kis kam ki hai? 

31. Yih to bare kam ki hai? 
Sab chize is sebantihaiw? 

32. Yih to kisi kam ka nahfo, 
Phewk do. 

33. Is se kuchh faida hota hai? 

34. Han, janab c ali, bara faida- 
mand hai. 

35. Is dawai se kuchh faida hua 
hai? 

36. Jis ko jitni tankhwah a baqi 
hai, di jaegi. 

37. Ap kise puchhte hai? 

38. Kisi ko bhi nahi. 

39. Ap kis se puchhte haiw? 

40. Mai/z ap se puchhta hun. 

41. Yih dawai bilkull be-faida 
hai. 



23. Whithersoever you turn him 
thither he goes. 

24. Whoever has my book, let 
him give it to me quickly. 

25. The man from whom you 
got bread is a great rogue. 

26. Which sort of cloth do you 
wish? 

27. Which of these chairs do 
you want? 

28. Which men are you asking 
for? 

29. What is this made of? 

30. What is this wood good for? 

31. Lots of use. All (sorts of) 
things are made from it. 

32. This is useless. Throw it 
away. 

33. Is this any use? 

34. Yes, sir, it is very useful. 

35. Has this medicine relieved 
you? 

36. Whatever pay is back 
(owing) to whomsoever, it 
will be given him. 

37. Whom are you inquiring for? 

38. For no one. 

39. Whom do you ask? 

40. I am asking you. 

41. This medicine is quite use- 
less. 

8* 



Vocabulary Alfdz. 


Kutab 


books. 


Pana 


to get by effort 


Farosh 


selling 


Jo koi 


whosoever 


'Arab 


Arabia 


Jo kuchh 


whatever 


'Arabi 


Arabian 


Sas 


breath 


Khudawand 


lord, Lord 


As 


hope 


Pichhe 


behind 


Jitna, jitni 


however much 


Pair 


foot 


Utna, utni 


that much 


Pairawi 


following 


Jo, jis, jo, jin 


who, whose 


So 


that 


Munasib 


fitting, proper 


Mai 


wealth 


Sharir 


wicked 


Malamal 


wealthy 


Gali 


abuse (of the 


Marzi 


will, wish 




tongue) 


Badma'ash 


a bad character 


Faida 


advantage 


Firishta 


angel 


Faidamand 


advantageous 


Ma'ne 


meaning 


Phe?zkna 


to throw 


Gharana 


househould 


Jidhar 


whither 


Najat 


salvation 


Udhar 


thither. 



The relative may be with its antecedent, as in I, 2, 
3, 4, or it may follow it as in 5, after the English manner. 
"So" in 9, is not much used in Urdu but a good deal in 
Hindi. 

In 14, 22, and 37, is an idiom much used by the Indians. 

Diversification. 

Take the nouns roti, rotiaw, admi, pani, kitab, kitabew, 
mez, ghoriaw, larke, rupaya, rupae, and substitute for "ghora", 
making the necessitated changes in sentence, until you can do 
so without hesitation. It will be a most valuable exercise in 
genders, as well as in relatives. 

Take sentences 2, 3, 4, 5, and change numbers. 

Let the teacher after these relative sentences in one form 
are mastered, give the other form also. 



LESSON XIX UNISWAA^ SABAQ. 

Subjunctive {Present ana Past, so called "Aorisf* and Past 
Conditional). 



1. Chahiye ki yih gosht aj 
pakaya jae. 

2. Jab tak bartan na sukhe, 
pani na dala jae. 

3. Wuh is liye bheje gaye, taki 
wahaw par jakar mare jae. 

4. Chahiye ki yih karri abhi 
kiya jae. 

5. Chahiye ki sab log Thuda 
ki bandagi kare;/. 

6. Chahiye tha ki yih kam kal 
ho jata. 

7. Chahiye tha ki ap mujh 
ko khatt likhte. 

8. Lazim tha ki ap pahle mera 
kam karte. 

9. Zariir hai ki yih kam pahle 
kiya jae. 

10. Zariir tha ki yih kam pahle 
kiya jata. 

1 1. Kash ki ap kal ate, tab thik 
tha. 

12. Mai/2 chahta huw ki ap 



1. This meat ought to be 
cooked today. 

2. Don't put in the water till 
the vessel dry (Let it not 
be put in). 

3. They were sent for this 
(purpose) that they might 
go there and be killed. 

4. This work ought to be done 
at once. 

5. All people should serve 
God. 

6. This work ought to have 
been done yesterday. 

7. You should have written 
me a letter. 

8. You should have done my 
work first. 

9. It is necessary that this 
work be done first. 

10. It was necessary that this 
work be done first (which 
it was not). 

11. O that you had come yester- 
day, then it would have 
been (was) all right. 

12. I wish you to come. 



13- Chalo, tumhe# aj badshah 13. Come along, I'll take you 
pas le chalu. to the king to-day. 



118 



14. Khuda jane kya kuchh 
banega. 

15. Shaid taiyar ho. 

1 6. Main darta hun ki bad- 
du'a na kare. 

17. Mumkiw hai ki taiyar ho. 

1 8. Kya yih larka ap ke liye 
jae? Koi jae. 

19. Kya ap chahte haw ki main 
isi tarah batan lagauw? 

20. Us ne chaha ki larke ko 
maruXparwuh marnasaka. 

21. Uska ji chaha* ki ghar 
chhorke maw aur kahin 
chala jauw. 

22. Chor ko chor hi pahchane. 



23. Marta kya na karta. 

24. Khiyali pilao pakae. 

25. Samp ka kata (hiia) rassf 
se dare. 



14. God knows what may be 
the outcome. 

15. Perhaps it's ready. 

16. I fear lest he may curse (me). 

17. It is possible that it is ready. 

1 8. Shall this boy go for you? 
Any one may go. 

19. Do you wish me to put 
the buttons on this way? 

20. He wished to kill the boy 
("may I kill the boy"), but 
was not able to (kill) do it. 

21. His heart desired to leave 
home and go somewhere 
else. 

22. Only a thief recognises a 
thief. "Set a thief to catch 
a thief. 

23. What won't a dying man do? 

24. He cooks imaginary "pilao". 
He builds castles in the air. 

25. He whom a snake has bitten 



fears a rope. 

The (present) subjunctive may be called the indefinite 
future, as it is used to express ideas which may be true, things 
that may come to pass. Consequently, after verbs of hope or 
fear, doubt, wish, purpose, or obligation we use this indefinite 
future, or "present subjunctive"; while to express ideas that 
might have come true, but did not, we use the past conditional 
or as I prefer to call it, past subjunctive. Compare 4 and 5, 
6 and 7, 8 and 9 and 10. 

* Why they do not say "ji ne chaha", I have not been able to 
find out. 



The present subjunctive is used to set forth axiomatic 
truth, as in 14, 24, 25. 

In 13 we have "pas" used with the person, where a place 
would take "ko". Take it to the lady, Memsahiba ke pas le 
jao, but, Take it to the city, Shahr ko le jao. 



Sukhna 
Sukha 
Sukhana 
Sukhwana 

Dalna 

Kash 

Badshah 



to dry 

dried, dry 

to make dry 

to have one make 

dry 

to put in 

would that 

kins 



Vocabulary. Alfdz. 

Pahchanna 

Kahiw 

Chor 

Khiyal 

Khiyali 

Samp 

Rassi 

Shaid 



to recognise 

somewhere 

thief 

thought, idea 

imaginary 

serpent 

rope 

perhaps 



Diversification. 

In i substitute liya, diya, khaya, bheja, kharida (bought), bike. 

In 4 substitute for "kam", roti, gosht, alu, ata, with "pakaya, 
pakae". 

In 8 and 9 substitute in proper form khatt likhte, bulate, 
and lana, dena, lena, rokna, batana, dikhana, dhundhna. 

In 12 put any of these verbs. 

LESSON XX. BISWAS SABAQ. 
Participles. 



1 . Wuh roti khakar chala gaya. 

2. Wuh roti khakar jaega. 

3. Roti khakar wuh apna kam 
shuru' karta hai. 

4. Wuh uth uth kar chalne 
laga. 

5. Yisu'ne roti li aur shukar 
karke tori. 



1 . He, having eaten,went away. 

2. He will eat and go. 

3. He eats before he begins 
work. 

4. Rising with difficulty he (or, 
After several attempts he 
arose and) started to go. 

5. Jesus took bread and, hav- 
ing given thanks, broke it. 



I2O 

6. Unhotf ne jan bujhke kiya. 6. They did it knowingly 

(having known). 

7. Dawai pilakar jao. 7. Give the medicine before 

you go. 

8. Dawai pilate hi jao. 8. As soon as you have given 

the medicine, go. 

9. Dawai pilate jao (or, pilate 9. Go on giving the medicine, 
raho). 

10. Dawai pilate hi larki ach- 10. The girl recovered as soon 
chhi ho gayi. as they gave the medicine. 

11. Usko marte hi lakri tut n. The stick broke on strik- 
gayi. ing him. 

12. Goli ke lagte hi ghora mar 12. As soon as the ball struck 
gaya. him, the horse died. 

13. Waha>z chalkar mere liye 13. Go there and wait for me. 
thahre raho. 

14. Rel ke ate hi dhobi nikal 14. The washerman came out 
aya. the instant the train came. 

15. Pahu/zchte hi uska ghora 15. His horse fell on arrival, 
gir para. 

1 6. Wuh khara hokar kahne 16. Standing up he said, On 
laga, ki yih bat sunkar mai# hearing this I, too, grew 
bhi gusse hua. angry (in anger I became). 

17. Main ne usko beta karke 17. I brought him up as a son. 
pala. 

1 8. Ba'z Hindu is patthar ko 18. Some Hindus honour this 
Khuda karke mante hain. stone as God. 

19. Main ne us ko mazbut karke 19. I tied it tight (making it 
bandha. strong). 

20. Mai/z uske sath gulam hoke 20. I lived with him as a slave, 
raha. 

21. Gariwan ne ghora mar 21. The coach-man beat and 
marke chalaya tha. beat the horse to make 

it go. 



121 



22. Maiw ande bechkar murgia>2 22. I'll sell the eggs and buy 
kharid luwga. hens. 

Note. The time denoted by the participle in "kar" or 
"ke" both of which are in good usage, though "kar" is ordi- 
narily preferred, is time previous to that of the verb, and so 
may be used for past time, as in I, 4, 6 &c. ; or for future, 
as in 2, or, as in 3 and 18, to denote a course of action; while 
karke and hoke are some times used as "as", 17, 18, 20. 

Diversification. Make a number of sentences on the model 
of 7. 

In 8, 10, n, 12, 14, 15 "par", on, is understood with the 
participle, so it takes the prepositional form in "e". 



Vocabulary. 



Shukr thanks 

Jan bujhkar purposely 



Thahrna 


to wait 


Girna, Gir 


to fall 


parna 




Parna 


to lie, fall 


Beta 


son 



Beti 


daughter 


Mazbut 


strong 


Gulam 


slave 


Ganwan 


coachman 


Anda 


egg 


Kharidna 


to buy 


Patthar 


stone 



LESSON XXI. IKKISWA^V SABAQ. 

Participles. , 

1. Mai ne usko ghar par I. I saw him (seated) sitting 
baitha dekha. 

2. Ham ne unko shahr se 
ate dekha. 

3. Un larko/z ne usko shahr 
ki taraf jate dekha. 

4. Larkio?z ne turn ko daurte 
dekha. 

5. Log ham ko roti khate dekh 



at home. 

2. I saw them coming from 
the city. 

3. Those boys saw him going 
toward the city. 

4. The girls saw you running. 



rahe the. 



5. The people were watching 
us eat 



122 



6. Main dhobi ko kapre dhote 
dekh raha hun. 

7. Man roti pitti beti ke ghar 
gayi. 

8. Larki yih kahti hui ghar 
chali gayi. 

9. Kutta bhau#kta bhau^kta 
meri taraf aya. 

I o. Ky a tumne usko mua dekha ? 

11. Yih bhai leta hua jagta tha. 

12. Gyara baje se lekar char 
baje tak usne mujhe pas 
bithae rakha. 

13. Din hote hote wuh a pa- 
hunche. 

14. Din hote hue larke pahuwch 
gaye. 

15. Main darta, darta (darte, 
darte) us pas gaya. 

16. Sote se uthkar wuh Misr 
ko chala gaya. 

17. Ham gate jate haiw. 



1 8. Wuh apnf roti khata gaya. 

19. ^har-gosh aj tak kano ke 
dar ke mare bhagta phirta 
hai. 

20. Ketli phuta panf hath men 
liye ata hai. 

21. Itni rat gayi ap kyu ae 
hai? 



6. I am watching the washer- 
man wash clothes. 

7. The mother went to her 
daughter's house, weeping 
and beating her breast. 

8. The girl went home saying 
this (as she went). 

9. The dog came barking 
toward me. 

10. Did you see him dead? 
1 1 .This brother was lying awake. 

12. From ii o'clock to four 
he kept me seated by him. 

13. They came as it was get- 
ting day. 

14. The boys arrived while it 
was yet day. 

15. I fearfully afraid went to 
him. 

16. Arising from sleep(ing), he 
went to Egypt. 

17. We go on singing, or, we 
go singing. 

1 8. He went on eating his bread. 

19. The hare (ass-ears) for fear 
of his ears goes fleeing 
about till now. 

20. He is coming with a kettle 
of boiling (broken) water 
in his hand. 

21. Why have you come so 
late at night? (so much 
night having gone). 



123 



22. Memsahiba kuchh rat rahe 
se uthkar l<Chuda ki 'ibadat 
kar rahi haiw. 

23. Wuh daurta hua chala ata 
* hai. 

24. Sir niche kiye (hue) khara 
hai. 

25. Us ke samne dane pare 
hue the. 

26. Yih larka parha hua hai. 

27. Yih parha hua larka hai. 

28. Darwaze se sir nikale khare 
the. 

29. Ma?2ge bagair tumne kyun 
liya? 

30. Bin-mawge unhow ne mujh- 
ko diya. 

31. Pas akar wuh be-puchhe 
kahne laga. 

32. Mai;z batti hath men liye 
au#ga. 

33. Meri kitab lete ana. 

34. Mai# sab ki kitabew lekar 
jauwga. 

35. Apni najat ke kam kiye 
jao. 

36. Jaha tak ho sake c ilm hasil 
kiye jao. 

37. Apko Panjab ae kitne baras 
hue ham? 



22. Madam has been worship- 
ing God since before dawn 
(arising while yet night). 

23. He is coming running. 

24. He is standing with head 
down. 

25. The grains were lying be- 
fore him. 

26. This boy is educated. 

27. This is an educated boy. 

28. They were standing with 
heads thrust out of the 
door. 

29. Why did you take it wit- 
hout asking? 

30. They gave it me unasked. 

31. Coming up he began to 
say, without being asked. 

32. I'll bring the candle in my 
hand. 

33. Bring my book when you 
come. 

34. I'll get the books of all be- 
fore I go. 

35. Go on doing works of your 
salvation. 

36. As far as possible, go on 
acquiring knowledge. 

37. How long have you been 
in the. Punjab? (to you, 
come to the P., how many 
years have become). 



124 



38. Mera phata hua saya darzi 
ko dedo, ki wuh uski ma- 
rammat kare. 

39. Is dukan men bane banae 
jute aur sile silae kapre 
mil jate hai#. 



38. Give my torn skirt to the 
tailor that he may mend it. 



40. Agar paki pakai roti mil 
jae to bihtar. 

41. Is dudh men pani mila hua 
hai. 

42. Kyu^ki ham iman par chalte 
hain, na ki aVzkhow dekhe 
par. 

Participles are 
declined form in V 



39. (You) can get ready-made 
boots and clothing in thjs 
shop, (boots, clothes made, 
had made, sewn, had sewn). 

40. It will be better if (we) can 
get ready - cooked food 
(bread). 

41.' There is water mixed in 

this milk. 
42. For we walk by faith and 

not by sight (not on that. 

seen [by] eyes). 

used either in agreement or in the 
It is safe, however, to make the parti- 



ciple agree with its noun, or pronoun, if that is a subject; if 
it, however, is an object, with or without "ko", the participle 
may be in the "a", form. When participles are repeated, as 
in 9, 13, 15, they more commonly are in "e". In 21, "si 1 is 
understood "gayi si 1 , as it is expressed in 22. In 24 28 hud, 
hue, may be expressed or understood, as desired. 



Vocabulary. Alfaz. 



Rona 


to cry 


Misri 


Rulana 


to make cry 




Pitna 


to be beaten 


Khar-gosh 


Pitna 


to beat 


Bhagna 


Pitwana 


to have beaten 


Bhagana 


Bhauwkna 


to bark 


Phirna 


Letna 


to lie down 


Pherna 


Litana 


to lay down 


Phirana 


Misr 


Egypt 


Phutna 



sugar (from 

Egypt?) 
hare (ass-ear) 
to flee 
to make flee 
to turn, go about 
to make turn 
to make go about 
to break out (intr.) 



125 - 



Phorna to break open (tr) 

Phatna to be torn 

Pharna to tear 

MaVzgna to ask for, want 

Mawgana to send for, 
Bana banaya ready made 
Paka pakaya ready cooked 
Sila silaya ready sewn 
Dhona to wash 

Daurna to run 

Itna, itnf, itne so much, thus 
much 

to die 

dead 

grain 

to lie, fall 

without 

without 



Ibadat worship 

Jaha where 

Battf candle, wick 

Najat salvation 

c llm knowledge 
Ma'lum (same 

root) known 

Hasil acquirement 

Hasil karna to get, acquire 

Saya skirt, shadow 

I'man faith(never belief) 

Marammat mending 

Darzi tailor 
Juta, jute, juti shoe, shoes 

Kapra cloth, garment 

Kapre clothes 

Rat night 

Sir head 



Marna 

Mua 

Dana 

Parna 

Bagair 

Bin, Be 

Diversification. Interchange the nouns and pronouns of 
the first ten sentences until you can do it readily. Interchange 
all the verbs of n 18, then make all future. 

In 37 ask "studying Urdu, writing Urdu, living in this city, 
reading this book", then use for baras, din, mahine, der; if you have 
much trouble or hesitation in this, your past work is "kachcha". 

In i 10 substitute any participles that may be formed 
from verbs in these sentences, e. g., in 6 say, Mam dhobi ko 
kapre late dekh raha huw. 

Have the teacher give sentences showing the usage of 
these verbs in double and treble roots. 



LESSON XXII. BAiswA^v SABAQ. 
Exercises in "wdlcf 1 , English ^er". 



i. Yih admi 
wala hai. 



khub daurne- 



I. This man is an excellent 
runner. 



126 



2. Kamitti in lakrf-, ghas-, cha- 
rewalon ko shahr men bin 
mahsul liye jane nahiw deti. 



3. Yih marnewala jism baqa 
ka jama pahinega. 

4. Ghorewale Kabul se bahut 
ate hai;/. 

5. Yih admi bara chalnewala 
hai. 

6. Tez daurnewali ghori ham 
ko chahiye. 

7. Gariwala ap ko ek bakas- 
wala dikhaega, aur ap us 
se do paisewala tikit lekar 
aur apni chitthi par laga- 
kar, pattharwale ghar ke 
bambe me dal dena. 

8. Gaomvale bare khanewale 
hote ha.ln. 

9. Yih dag-wala ghora bikaii 
hai, kyu#ki yih bara khau 
hai. 

IO. Uparwalo men se lena, ki 
wuh achchhe hain. 



2. The (municipal) committee 
does not allow these wood-, 
grass-, and fodder-men to 
go into the city without 
having taken tax (octroi). 

3. This dying body shall put 
on a garment of immor- 
tality. 

4. Lots of horse-dealers come 
from Kabul. 

5. This man is a great walker. 

6. We want a swift running 
mare. 

7. The cartman will show you 
a boxman, and from him 
you will get a two-pice 
stamp and put it on your 
letter and cast it into the 
pipe of the stone house. 

8. Villagers are great eaters. 

9. This spotted horse is for 
sale, as he is a big eater. 



10. Take from the upper ones 

for they are good. 
Never say "Achchewala dedo, as many do, i. e. "Give 
a good one", but say "Koi achchha sa dedo, Achchhe alu de do, 
Achchhi rotf do". 

11. In Dilli-walo/z ke sath mat 
rahna. 

12. Yih larka pas ho jaega. 



Bara honhar hai. 



11. Don't stay with these men 
of Delhi. 

12. This boy will pass. He is 
a very likely lad. 



12; - 



13- Mam apne bhejnewale pas 
jata hutt. 

14. Mere ba c d ke anewale ko 
yih khatt dena. 

15. Wuh Lahaur janewala hai. 

1 6. Yih kale admio/z ko katne- 
wala kutta hai. 

17. Jis ka qissa main sunane- 
wala hun. 

1 8. Pakanewali koi nahi;z hai, 
is liye shadi karta. hun. 

19. Ai gathri-wale, kinare ho 
jao. 

20. Gharwali kahne lagi ki ghar- 
wala bahar gaya hua hai. 

21. Sab bato?* ko jo honewali 
thi jankar, Masih shahr-i- 
muqaddas ko chala. 

22. Bonewala aur hai, katne- 
wala aur. 



13. I go to him who sent me. 

14. Give this letter to him who 
comes after me. 

15. He is going to Lahore. 

1 6. This dog bites black men. 

17. Whose story I am about 
to relate. 

1 8. I Ve no house-keeper, so 
I am getting married. 

19. O bundle-man, get to one 
side. 

20. The wife began to say, Hus- 
band is gone away (outside). 

21. Knowing all things that 
were about to happen, Christ 
started to the holy city. 

22. One sows (and) another 
reaps. (Sower other is, 
reaper other). 

23. He who receives my sent 
one, receives me rather, 
he receives my sender. 



23. Jo mere bheje hue ko qabul 

karta hai,mujhe balki mere 

bhejnewale ko, qabul karta 

hai. 

This ending "wala, wall 
in "a", changes the "a" to "e" 
gho/rwala. In many instances it has the force of an adjective. 
In 9 we notice that "u" added to the root gives this same idea. 
Also, "har" and "hara". This is a common idiom in the Punjabi. 



added to a noun or inf. 
as katna but katw^wala, ghora, 



Vocabulary. Alfaz. 

Kamitti Committee, usually. Ghas 
the municipal Com. Chara 



grass 
fodder 



128 



Mahsul(hasil) 

Tahsil (hasil) 

Tahsildar 

Jism 

Baqa (baqi, 
left) 

Jama 

pae jama (leg- 
clothes) 

Pahinna 

Kabul 

Tez 
Bakas 
Tikit 
Chitthi 



tax 

tax-collecting 
tax-collecter 
body, flesh 
immortality 

clothes 
pyjamas 

to put on 
Capital of Afgha- 
nistan 

sharp, swift 
box 

stamp,ticket,card 
letter 



Khatt 

Dag 

Upar 

Pas 

Honhar 

Kala, kali, 

kale 
Qissa 

Sunna,sunana 
Shadi 
Gathri 
Kinara 
Muqaddas 
Bona 
Qabul 



epistle, letter 
spot, blemish 
above 
"passed" 
"likely", of parts 
black- 
tale 

to hear, to tell 
marriage 
bundle 
edge 
holy 

to sow (seed) 
acceptable 



LESSON XXIII TE!SWA^V SABAQ. 
Permissives. 



1. Wuh ham ko ane nahfe 
dete. 

2. Mam turn ko kal hi ane 



3. Baba mujh ko kam karne 
nahf deta. 

4. Rahne do, koi dar nahin. 

5. Jane do, koi bat nahvi. 

6. Chhor do. Diqq mat 
karo. 

7. Rahne dijiye. Kuchh parwa 
nahi. 

8. Gall bakne do. Kuchh 
muzaiqa nahin. 



1. They won't let us come 
(lit. They do not give us 
to come). 

2. I will let you come to- 
morrow, indeed. 

3. The child won't let me do 
my work. 

4. Let it alone, it's no matter. 

5. Let it go, it's nothing. 

6. Quit it. Don't vex me. 

7. Never mind. It's no dif- 
ference. 

8. Let him blackguard. It's 
no difference. 



129 



Q. Bimari usko parhne nahiw 
detf. 

10. Men ankhen mujh ko 
parhne nahfo detfo. 

11. Walid ne mujhko jane na 
diya. 

12. Memsahiba larko?z ko ane 
na dengin. 

13. Turn ne pani kyun na pine 
diya? 

14. Barish ham ko bahar ni- 
kalne nahfo deti. 

15. Shor baba ko sone nahi# 
deta. 

16. Janab c ali, ek admi ap kf 
mulaqat ke liye aya hai. 
Achchha ane do (or, Khair, 
salam bolo). 

17. Jis tarah usne larkow ko 
ane diya mai ne bhi usi 
tarah ane diya. 



9. Sickness won't allow him 
to go to school. 

10. My eyes won't let me read. 

11. Father did not let me go. 

12. Madam will not let the 
boys come. 

13. Why did you not let him 
drink? 

14. Rain won't let us go out. 

15. The noise won't let the 
baby sleep. 

1 6. Sir, a man has come to 
see you (meet). Well, let 
him come in. (Well, ask 
him in.) 

17. I let the boys in just as he 
did. (In what way he let 
the boys come, in that very 
way did I.) 



Baba 

Diqq 

Parwa 

Muzaiqa 

Bimar 



Vocabulary, Alfdz. 



child, old man 
annoyed 

matter of thought 
of importance 
sick 



Bimari 


sickness 


Barish 


rain 


Shor 


noise 


Mulaqat 


meeting 


Salam 


peace, greeting 



Diversification. Substitute ten verbs from the diversification 
list p. i, in 153, 2, 9, ii, and 17. 



130 



LESSON XXIV. CHAUBISWA^V SABAQ. 
Compulsives. 



1. Tumko kal Lahaur jana 
parega. 

2. Mujh ko likhna parega. 

3. Hamew chha baje subh kam 
par jana parta hai. 

4. Roz roz do daf'a diidh ni- 
kalna parta hai. 

5. Munshi ko har waqt Urdu 
bolna chahiye. 

6. Shagird ko imtihan mew 
Urdu bolna parega, is liye 
chahiye ki abhi bola kare. 

7. Mujhe ghar ka sara asbab 
bechna para. 

8. Turn ko likhna hoga. 

9. Unko apne hath se lakri 
katni paregi. 

10. Agar jana para, to I^hair, 
jauwga. 

11. Use yih bat kahni pan aur 
tumko bhi paregi. 

12. Roz gharwale ko chitthi 
likhni parti hai. 

13. Larkow ko bare bare kam 
karne pare. 



1. You'll have to go to Lahore 
to-morrow. (To you going 
will fall.) 

2. I'll have to write. (To me 
writing will fall.) 

3. We have to go to work at 
six A. M. 

4. We have to milk twice 
daily. 

5. The munshi ought to speak 
Urdu at all times. 

6. The pupil will have to speak 
Urdu in examination, so he 
ought to speak it now. 

7. I had to sell all my furni- 
ture. 

8. You will have to write. 

9. They'll have to cut wood 
with their own hands. 

10. If I have to go, then, Well, 
I'll go. 

11. He had to tell it and so 
will you. 

12. She has to write to her 
husband every day. 

13. The boys had to do a lot 
of big jobs. 



What we translate as subject is really in the dative 
case with "ko" and parna may be used in mas., or fern, of 
present, past, future, but of course only in the third person, 



as the subject is always an infinitive. "Chahiye" denotes moral 
obligation, while "parna" is compulsion from without. 



Vocabulary. Alfaz. 

Shagird disciple Likhana 

Imtihan examination 

Khair well Ghabrana 

Likhna to write 



to have write, to 

dictate 

to be nervous 
(XXV, 10). 



Diversification. 

Change the pronouns to all other persons and numbers. 
Instead of nouns and pronouns, substitute boy, boys, girl, girls, 
man, men, woman, women, in 6. For verbs substitute buy, sell, 
eat, feed, break, open, or any other familiar, verbs, with these 
or other nouns as objects. 

LESSON XXV. PACHISWA^V SABAQ. 



1. Wuh isi waqt bazar jata 
hoga. 

2, Unko bari taklif hoti hogi. 



3. Mai;z ne wuh ghora dekha 
hoga, yad nahi. 

4. Diya hoga. Pata nahiw raha. 

5. Sach hoga. (Sach bat hogi). 

6. Wuh shahr gaye ho;zge. 

7. Unhorc ne ap ko chitthi 
likhi hogi. 

8. Larki aj tak mar gayi hogi. 

9. Wuh dhup men marte 
ho^ge. 



1. He must be going to the 
bazar just now. 

2. They must be enduring 
great trouble (to them great 
trouble becoming will). 

3. I must have seen the horse. 
I don't remember. 

4. I suppose I did give it. 
I don't recollect. 

5. It may be true. 

6. They must have gone to 
the city. 

7. They must have written 
you a letter. 

8. The girl must have died 
by to-day. 

9. They must be dying in the 
sun (hyperbole). 

9* 



132 



10. Kyu>z ghabrate ho? Wuh 10. Why are you so nervous? 
ati hogi? She must be coming. 

o o 

11. Yih charpai ap ko chahiye n. You must be needing this 
hogi. bedstead. 

1 2. Ap ne bare bare safar kiye 1 2. You must have taken won- 
ho;zge. derful journeys. 

This "hoga" is never used in the present tense, so far as 
I have observed, with the first person. If indefiniteness is re- 
quired for the first person, then the indefinite future, the sub- 
junctive, so-called "aorist", is used as, "shaid jau;z", perhaps 
I may go, but in the past tense, where failure of memory 
comes in it is quite common. 

Diversification. Substitute the verbs of the table p. 153. 

LESSON XXVI. CHHABBISWA^ SABAQ. 
Continuative with "raknd". 

1. Wuh din bhar yihi kam I. They keep doing this work 
karte rahte haiw. 

2. Yahi;z khare raho, jab tak 
mai/z na au;z. 

3. Baithiye Baithe rahiye. 

4. Chup raho. Chupke se 
baithe raho. 

5. Wuh sara din baitha rahta 
hai. 

6. Wuh kha rahi hai. Wuh 
khati rahti hai. 

7. Darzi si raha hai. Wuh 
sita rahta hai. 

8. Wuh likh rahe ham. Wuh 
likhate rahte hai;z. 



all day. 

2. Stay here till I come (Stand). 

3. Be seated. Sit still. 

4. Be quiet. Sit in silence. 



5. He sits all day. 



She eats 



He 



9. Go maiw ne usko mana' 
kiya tha, wuh sharab pita 
jata hai. 



6. She is eating. 
right along. 

7. The tailor is sewing. 
sews all the time. 

8. They are writing. They dic- 
tate all the time. 

9. Though I forbade him, he 
goes on drinking liquor. 






133 



10. Wuh sara din sharab pita 
rahta hai. 

1 1 . Agarchi man ne bulaya 
tha, wuh parhta gaya. 

12. Ustad ne mana c kiya, lekin 
wuh gata gaya. 

13. Khushi ke mare wuh gati 
rahti hai. 

14. Uska sara mal jata raha hai. 

15. Meredorupaejateraheham. 

1 6. Baba se le lo, nahiVz to golf 
jati rahegi. 

17. Larki yahaw se dikhai na 
deti thi. 

1 8. Yih bat sunkar sab ke sab 
' chal diye. 

19. Wuh sitara kis waqt dikhai 
diya tha? 

20. Top ki awaz aj sunai na di. 



21 



10. He drinks liquor all day. 

11. Although his mother called 
him, he went on reading. 

12. The teacher forbade him 
but he went on singing. 

13. She sings for joy all the 
time. 

14. All his property has been 
lost. 

15. I've lost two rupees. 

1 6. Take it from the child, 
else the ball will be lost. 

17. The girl could not be seen 
from here (was not giving 
appearance from here). 

1 8. Hearing this everybody 
went off (gave a start). 

19. When did that star appear? 



20. We didn't hear the cannon 
to-day. 

2 1 . Both disciples followed him 
(took after him). 



Dono shagird uske pichhe 
ho liye. 

Note the differences in the couplets 6, 7, 8, etc. In 14, 
15, 1 6, the meaning is slightly different perhaps, though if a 
thing keeps going, it is likely to be "lost" which is the usual 
meaning of "jata rahna". Note that verbs of 18 21 agree with 
sub. not with obj. 



Din day 

Tak till 

Jab tak . . na until 



Vocabulary. Alfaz. 

Chupna 
Mana c 



to be quiet 

forbidden 

happy 



Khushi 


happiness 


Bolna 


to speak 


Bulana 


to call 


Gana 


to sing 


Jata rahna 


to be lost 



Mai 



134 

Dikhana 
Dikhai 
Sunana 
Sunaf 



wealth, cattle 



to show 
appearance 
to make hear 
sounding, audi- 
bility. 



Diversification. 

Substitute the verbs of the table in the first thirteen 
sentences. 



cha hamko I. Bring us three cups (of) tea. 



LESSON XXVII. SATTAiswX^ SABAQ. 
Prepositions. 

Some insist on calling these "postpositions", because, for- 
sooth, they come after the word they govern. Such pedantry 
would call "for" a postposition, in the sentence "What did you 
do that for?" As well say that a "blackbird" could not have 
a white feather. 

1. Tin piyale 
la do. 

2. Mujh ko cha ke chha pirch 
piyale dedo. 

3. Is dawai ko ek chammach 
cha me?z gholkar, pi lo. 

4. Cha ka ek chammach- 
bhar dawai pi lo. 

5. Ek ek gilas pani ham ko 
la do. 

6. Sahib lohe ke do gilas 
mawgwate ham. 

7. Yih to bare ta'ajjub ki bat 



hai. 



2. Give me six tea-cups and 
saucers. 

3. Dissolving this medicine in 
a spoonful of tea, drink it. 

4. Take (Drink) a teaspoon- 
ful of the medicine. 

5. Bring us each a glass of 
water. 

6. Master orders two iron 
tumblers. 

7. This is a very wonderful 
thing (thing of great wonder- 
ment). 



135 



8. Agar yih Khuda ki taraf 
se hai, to turn se kuchh na 
banega. 

9. Yih char din ki bat hai. 
Ap ne nahin suni? 

10. Wuh is liye gay a ki sahib 
ka hukm tha. 

1 1 . Wuh uske liye gaya hai. 

12. Is ki manind tin gaz kapra 
lana. 

13. Yih larka bap ki manind 
sharir hai. 

14. Yih chauki usi ke muwafiq 
banao. 

15. Uski bap ke muwafiq a.nkh 
hai. 

1 6. Yih bat sahib ki bat ke 
mutabiq hai. 

17. Quran Injil ke mutabiq 
nahin hai. 

1 8. Meri taraf se kah dena ki 
A jao. 

19. Ap ke char ane meri taraf 
ham. 

20. Tumhari taraf sawa rupaya 
hai. 

21. Is men aur us men zamin 
asman ka farq hai. 

22. Mujh men aur tujh men 
kitna kuchh farq hai. 



8. If this is of God, then you 
can do nothing. (If from 
towards God, from you any- 
thing not will be made.) 

9. This happened four days 
ago. Have you not heard it? 

10. He went because it was 
the master's order. 

11. He went for him (ke with 
person). 

12. Bring three yards of cloth 
like this. 

13. This boy is wicked like 
his father. 

14. Make this chair like that 
one. 

15. His eye is like his father's. 

1 6. This is like what master 
said. 

17. The Koran does not agree 
with the gospel (evangel). 

1 8. Tell him from me to come 
("Come on"). 

19. I owe you four annas. 
(Your four annas are to- 
ward me). 

20. There's Rs. 1/4 against you. 

21. There is a world of dif- 
ference between this and 
that. 

22. What - a difference between 
you and me. 



- 136 



23. Itne ('arse) men larka a 
gaya. 

24. Ap mujh par gusse na how. 

25. Yih le jao, but, Is ko le jao. 



26. Is mew ka pani pi lo. 

27. Khuda asman par hai, ham 
zamin par. 

28. Do mil par ap ko ek pul 
milega. 

29. Maiw waqt muqarrar par 
auwga. 

30. Khuda ki bandagi karni 
mujh par farz hai. 

31. Us ke hath mew anguthi aur 
uske paow men juti pahinao. 

32. Jab main raste mew tha, 
to maiw ne sarak par dekhi. 

33. Sach jhuth mew pahchan 
rakho. 

34. Samsun admiow mew zora- 
war tha. 

35. Mujh ko yih chizew darkar 
nahiw haw. 

36. Sahib ghar par haiw? Bahar 
haw. 

37. Wuh sawar hokar gaya hai. 

38. Das baras ka larka ja raha 
tha. 

39. Khajur ka darakht mera 
hai, arii ka tera. 



23. In the meantime the boy 
came. 

24. Don't be angry at me.(Don't 
be in anger at me). 

25. Take it away, but Take 
him (her) away. "Ko" with 
person. 

26. Drink water out of this. 

27. God is in heaven, we on 
earth. 

28. Two miles on a bridge 
will "meet" you. 

29. I'll come at the appointed 
time. 

30. To serve God is an obli- 
gation on me. 

31. Put a ring on his hand 
and shoes on his feet. 

32. When I was on my way, 
I saw it in the road. 

33. Keep recognition of truth 
and lying. 

34. Samson was the strongest 
of men. 

35. I don't need these things. 

36. Is the master at home? 
He is away. 

37. He has gone on horseback 
(being a rider). 

38. A ten-year old boy was 
going along. 

39. The date tree is mine, the 
peach thine. 



137 



4O. Unhow ne Agra ki rah li. 



40. They took the Agra road 
(lit. Agra's road). 

41. Where does this road go to? 

42. Be quiet like us. 

43. Put on your coat. 



41. Yih kaha# ki rah hai? 

42. Hamari tarah aram se raho. 

43. Kot pahino. 

Remember that repetition of these idioms again and again 
is necessary to fix them in the memory. Get them so you 
can use them freely. 

Diversify by going through and changing nouns, pronouns, 
and tenses. 





Vocabulary 


. Alfaz. 




Piyala 


cup 


Pahinna 


to put on one's 


Pirch 


saucer 




clothing 


Chammach 


spoon 


Farq 


difference 


Gilas 


glass 


'Arsa 


interval 


Loha 


iron 


Pul 


bridge 


Hukm 


order 


Banda 


servant 


Zamin 


earth 


Bandagi 


service 


Asman 


heaven 


Farz 


obligation 


ki taraf 


toward 


Gholna 


to dissolve 


ki manind 


like (outwardly) 


Rasta 


way 


ke muwafiq 


like (apparently) 


Rah 


path 


ke mutabiq 


like, according to 


Sarak 


highway 


ki tarah 


like 


Angutha 


thumb, bigtoe 


Ta'ajjub 


astonishment 


Anguthi 


ring 


Zor 


strength 


Paow 


foot 


Zorawar 


strong 


Aru 


peach 


Sawar 


rider 


Darkar 


required 


Gussa 


anger 


Sach 


truth 


Gusse 


(in) anger, angry 


Jhuth 


lie 


Pahinana 


to put clothes 


Pahchan 


recognition 




on another 


Khajur 


date fruit 



138 



LESSON XXVIII. ATHAISWA^ SABAQ. 



Prepositions continued. 

1. Rasulo;* me;z se do gao 
ki taraf gaye. 

2. Sab ke sab kahte the ki 
yih baniye len den ke khare 



3. Us ne wa'da kiya. ki jo 
kuchh mam diinga dudh ka. 
dudh dunga. 

4. Unhow ne char din ka 
wa'da kiya tha. 

5. Yih zami#dar sone rupe ka 
bara datilatmand hai. 

6. Sab ke sab miwzh dekhte 
ke dekhte rah gaye. 

7. Main ne apna ghora faqfr 
ke hath becha. 

8. Larki soti ki soti rahi. 

9. Unke aulad na thi (Un ke 



10. Is kitab ko mere larke ke 
pas bhej do. 

11. Yih kitabe;z daftar ko bhej 
do. 

12.* Yih ghoriaw kitne kitne 
men lin? 

13. Ban to main ne sau ko If, 
aur yih do chhotiaVz mai# 
ne sawa sawa sau se lin. 



1. Two of the apostles went 
toward the village. 

2. Everybody said that these 
shopkeepers are honest in 
dealing. 

3. He promised that What- 
ever I shall give, I will give 
pure milk. 

4. They promised (it) in four 
days 

5. This farmer is very wealthy 
in gold and silver. 

6. The whole lot stood look- 
ing in each other's faces 
[in blank astonishmen]. 

7. I sold my horse to the faqir. 

8. The girl slept right on. 

9. They had no children. (In 
their place.) 

10. Send this book to my boy. 

11. Send these books to the 
office. 

12. How much did you pay 
for each of these mares? 

13. I got the big one for 100 
and the two small ones for 
125 each. 



* note the 3 prepositions of price. 



139 



14- Yih log apas mew kya 
bate kar rahe hai? 

15. Uska do tin mahine ka 
bachcha mar gaya hai. 

1 6. Is ka rang khaki hai. 

17. Uska rang khaki hotahai. 

1 8. Is qadr ahistagi ki kanow* 
kan khabar na ho. 



19. Yih mal hathow hath bik 
jata hai. 

20. Wuh kothi se utarte hue 
gir para. 

21. Almari par se topi utar 
dena. 

22. Sab log darya ke par utar 
gaye hain, kya mujhe bhi 
na utaroge? 

23. Ap ke ghar me# kaun 
utara hai? 

24. Ghore ki tang utar gayi 
hai. 

25. Darya ka pani aj hi utar 
gaya hai. 

26. Bukhar subh charhta aur 
sham ko utar jata hai. 

27. Maulavi ne Khuda ke nam 
ka ghar banaya hai. 

* Kano 



14. What are these people say- 
ing among themselves? 

15. His two (or) three months' 
child is dead. 

1 6. Its colour is brown. 

17. Its colour is brown (by 
nature). 

1 8. So softly that no one hear. 
(With this degree of soft- 
ness that from ears to ear 
news go not.) 

19. These goods sell like hot 
cakes (from hands to hand, 
not from shelves). 

20. He fell coming down off 
the house. 

21. Give me my hat off the 
top of the ward-robe. 

22. Everybody has crossed 
over the river, will you not 
put me over too? 

23. Who (guest) is stopping at 
your house? 

24. The horse's leg is out of 
joint. 

25. The river has just gone 
down to-day. 

26. The fever goes up in the 
morning and goes down 
in the evening. 

27. The Moslem priest has built 
a house for God (of God's 
name). 

se kin tak. 



140 



28. Pahli ayat se lekar das 
(daswiW) tak parho. 

29. Ustad meri babat kya kah- 
ta tha? 

30. Wuh ap ke haqq men ba- 
hut buri bat kahta tha. 

31. Sahib ghar ke idhar udhar 



32. Kitab mez par hai (or, ke 
upar). 

33. Kapra mez ke upar (not 
par) tanga hai. 

34. Kapra mez par (or, ke 
upar) para hai. 

35. Sahib ghar par hai (but, 
ghar ke upar haiw). 

36. Ap ke sath shahr tak ho 



37. Maw ne baraso/z tak uski 
khidmat ki. 

38. Wuh ghar par do baje tak 
baithe rahe. 

39. Parri koson tak phailta 
gaya. 

40. Banda akhiri dam tak khid- 
mat karega. 

41. Sipahi jan tak farq nahm 
karta. 

42. Ap ne kaha tak parha? 

43. Jaha tak ho sake hasil 
kiye jao. 



28. Read from thj first verse 
to the tenth (and includ- 
ing). 

29. What was the teacher say- 
ing about me? 

30. He was saying a very bad 
thing of you. 

31. The master must be about 
the house. 

32. The book is on the table. 

33. The garment is hanging 
above the table. 

34. The garment is lying on 
the table. 

35. Mr. is at home (but, is on 
top of the house, or above 
it [if on a hill side]). 

36. I'll go as far as the city 
with you. 

37. I served him for years. 

38. They sat at home till 
two o'clock. 

39. The water went spreading 
for miles. 

40. I (your servant) will serve 
you till the last breath. 

41. A soldier does not regard 
his life. (Makes no diffe- 
rence up to life.) 

42. How far did you read? 

43. As far as possible go on 
acquiring. 



44- Sahib kitni der tak thaire 
rahe? 

45. Sahib log tar ke ane tak 
baithe rahe 

46. Wuh kal mere pas tha. 

47. Wuh kal mere sath tha 

48. lyhabardar! Isko ban kha- 
bardari se le jana. 

49. Main pahle yih bat janti hun. 

50. Yih chauthe roz ki bat hai. 



51. Idhar udhar ki batew hone 
lagiw. 



44. How long did the gentle- 
man wait? 

45. The gentlemen waited till 
the (wire) telegram came. 

46. He was with me yesterday 
(sitting). 

47. He was with me yesterday 
(going). 

48. Look out! Take this with 
great care (manner). 

49. I have known this before. 

50. (This is a matter of the 
fourth day.) This happened 
four days ago. 

51. All sorts of talk now be- 
gan. 



Rasul 

Ayat 

Wa'da 

Zamin 

ZamiVzdar 

Daulat 

Daulatmand 

Faqir 

Aulad 

Daftar 

Ahista 

Ahistagi 

Banda 

Bandagi 

Charhna 



Vocabulary Alfdz. 
Apostle, sent one, Charhana 
Mohammed 

Darya 
Utarna 



verse 

promise 

earth, land 

landholder 

wealth 

wealthy 

fakeer, holy man 

offspring 

office 

quiet, slow 

quietness 

servant 

service 

to go up 



Utarna 

Tawgna 
Tawgna 



Bukhar 

Kos 

Dam 

Ek dam se 



to make go up, 
put up 
river 
to come down, 

go over 
to take down, put 

over 
to hang 
to make hang 
leg, legs 
fever 
i x / 2 miles 
breath 
with one breath, 

quickly 



Khidmat service 



142 



Jan 
Tar 
Khabar 



life 

wire, telegram 

news 



Khabardar Look out 
Khabardari care. 
Ustad teacher 



LESSON XXIX. UNTI'SWAJV SABAQ. 

i. Log ghar ke age pichhe I. People were standing be- 

[tha. 



khare the. 

2. Wuh hamare age age jata 

3. Billi chuhiye ko pakarke 
larki ke samne lai. 

4. Yih pahle ki bat hai. 

5. Jo mere ba c d ata hai, wuh 
mujh se pahle tha. 

6. Samne se (or, Age se) hat 
jao. 

7. Wuh chizen ghar ke pichhe 



fore and behind the house. 

2. He was going on before us. 

3. The cat caught the mouse 
and brought it before the 
girl. 

4. This happened before. 

5. He who comes after me 
was before me. 

6. Get out of the way (from 
in front). 

7. Those things are behind 
the house. 

8. Yih log mere ba'd pahun- 8. These folk will arrive after 
chewge. me. 

("After" is translated by "ba'd", when it refers to 
time, but by "pichhe", when it refers to place. "Before" in 
time, is "pahle", but of place it is "samne" or "age", which two 
are interchangeable.) 

9. Iske badle men koi dusri 
chauki dedo. 

IO. Yih admi mere badle (men) 

kam karega. 
10. Yih admi meri jagah (meri 

e iwaz) kam karega. 
n. Mahsul ki chaukia;z shahr 



ke ware pare hai. 



9. Give some other chair in 

exchange for this. 
10. This man will work in my 
place. 

10. This man will work in my 
place. 

11. Tax-houses ("Seats of cus- 
tom") are on this and that 
side of the city. 



143 



12. Das baje ke qarib maw 
ne bis ek admi dekhe. 

13. Dar ke sabab se qariban 
sare bhag gaye. 

14. Bag ke nazdik koi sau 
faqir log rahte ham, aur 
mere nazdik wuh achchhe 
admi nahin ham. 

15. Meri chitthiaw Daktar sahib 
ki ma'rifat pahauwcha karti 
hain. 

1 6. Is ghori ki nisbatyih ghora 
ap ke kam ke ziyada laiq 
hai. 

17. Log mere khilaf (barkhilaf) 
kyu# uthte hai;*? 

1 8. Do admi mere muqabale 
mew khare hue. 

19. Is khirki ke muqabale men 
darwaza chahiye. 

20. Ham ap ke ghar ke andar 
aur bahar jate haiu. 

21. Siwa uske sab bhag gaye. 

22. Bazar ke bich do bari du- 
kanew ham. 

23. Ap mere hawale kar de?z, 
aur, mere zimme, bajae iske 
main ap ki khatir koi ach- 
chha ghora lauTzga. 

24. Iske war par chhedna. 
Chhid jaega. 

25. Bazar hokar jana. 

26. Pani ke bioh men se nikal 
gaya. 



12. About ten o'clock I saw 
some 20 men. 

13. For fear nearly all fled. 

14. About a hundred fakeers 
live near the garden, and 
in my opinion, they are 
not good men. 

15. I (usually) get my letters 
in the care of the M. D. 

1 6. In comparison with this 
mare this horse is more 
fit for your work. 

17. Why do people rise up 
against me? 

1 8. Two men stood up against 
me. 

19. There ought to be a door 
opposite this window. 

20. We go in and out of your 
house. 

21. All but him fled. 

22. In the center of the bazar 
are two large shops. 

23. Put him in my care, and 
I, I assure you, (in my re- 
sponsibility) instead of this, 
will bring you a good horse. 

24. Make a hole through this. 
It shall be done (pierced). 

25. Go by way of the bazar. 

26. He went through the (midst 
of the) water. 



144 



27. Wuh darakht, jo dono ko- 
thion ke bich men hai, 
mere liye kato. 

28. Ap is sabaq ki babat kya 
puchhte hai? 

29. Jaisa hai waisa hi lao. 

30. Jaisa ap munasib jane, 
waisa hi karen. 

31. Mera nam wuhi hai jo 
uska hai. 

32. ]ahan tak main gaya, wuh 
wahan tak mere sath gaya. 

33. Jis qadr khabardari mum- 
kin hai ki jaegi. 

34. Main aisa kam nahin karta 
hun. 

35. Main itna kam nahin karta. 
hun. 

36. Aisa bura kam mat karo. 

37. Usne itna bura kam kiya 
ki kya kahe? 

38. Utni almaria^ mujhko cha- 
hiye^jitnitumharepas hain. 

39. Itne rupae diye, jitne ya- 
han hain. 

40. Itna hi kam hai. 

41. Jaisa mam kahun (waisa) 
karo. 

42. Jaisa usne kiya main ne 



27. Cut that tree for me that 
is between the two houses. 

28. What are you asking about 
this lesson? 

29. Bring it just as it is. 

30. Do as you think proper. 

31. My name is the same as 
his. 

32. He went along with me as 
far as I went. 

33. As far as care is possible, 
it will be taken. 

34. I do not do such work. 

35. I don't do so much work. 

36. Don't do so evil a thing. 

37. He did so evil a thing 
that How shall I tell it? 

38. I want as many cup-boards 
(wardrobes) as you have. 

39. (I) gave as many rupees, 
as are here. 

40. This is all the work there is. 

41. Do as I tell you. 

42. I did as he did. 



bhi kiya. 

Be careful to attain speed and readiness in the use of 
these prepositions, and be accurate with the "ke" or "ki", 
always thinking of them as, not that "for" is "waste, liye", but 
"ke waste, ke liye"; "about" is not "babat", but "ki babat". 



Diversification. Learn these sentences very completely, 
and then take any nouns from the list that seem suitable and 
substitute. 

Take sentences I, II, 14, 18, and substitute, ke ird gird, 
ke ware pare, ki is taraf, ki us taraf, ke pas, ke nazdik, ke 
peshtar, ke pichhe, ke bajae, ke liye, ki khatir, ke mare, ke 
ba'is, ke sath, ki tarah, ki taraf, se, ki taraf se, ke darmiyan, 
ke sipurd, ke wasile. 

Vocabulary. Alfaz. 
Chhedna to pierce 
Chhidna to be pierced 

Chuhiya mouse 

Qariban nearly 

Nazdik near, opinion of 

Khilaf (bar- opposing 

khilaf) 

Muqabale opposite, oppos- 
ing 
Siwa except 

LESSON XXX. TISWA^ SABAQ. 
Conjunctions. 



Almari 


cup-board, 




wardrobe 


Khirki 


window 


Qadr 


degree 


Aisa 


this sort 


Itna 


this much 


Utna 


that much 


Jitna 


as much 


Jaisa 


as 


Ki maVifat 


by means of 



1. Agar mam pahle chhotow 
se shuru' karuw, (or, Agar 
mai;z ne pahle chhotow se 
shuru c kiya) to wuh jald 
rah-i-rast par a jaewge. 

2. Bare meri sunkar rah-i-rast 
par jald a jaewge, warna 
ghar se nikal duwga. 

3. Agar wuh haqq ki rah par 
na ae, to ghar se nikal 
jae. 



1. If I should begin with the 
little ones first, they will 
speedily come on the right 
path. 

2. The big ones, hearing me, 
will quickly come to the 
right path, else I'll put 
them out of the house. 

3. If they do not come on 
the right path then let 

them get out of the house. 
10 



146 



4. Agarchi (Go) main ne 
baron se shuru' karke ban 
koshish ki, tau bhi (taham) 
wuh be-farman rahe the. 

5. Main ne chhoto se ban 
koshish ki lekin (magar, 
par) wuh ziyada kharab 
hote gaye. 

6. Chuki wuh tattu sau rupae 
ka mal tha, wuh us se kam 
na leta tha. 

7. Khwah wuh ae khwah na 
ae, tumhew ana hoga. 

8. Chahe yih lo, chahe wuh, 
mujhe parwa nahiw. 

9. Na chhota aya na bara, 
dono ke dono be-farman 
rahe. 

10. Is kam ko ahistagi se shuru' 
karna chahiye, aisa na ho 
ki yih naya dhang dekhkar, 
larke hat jaew. 

11. Peshtar is ke ki main ja 
saku, wuh gaya. 

12. Jab tak zindagi hai, tab tak 
ummed bhi hai. Jab tak 
sans tab tak as. 

13. Jab tak main na aun, yahin 
baithe raho. 

14. Jidhar se aya, udhar ko 
gaya. 

15. Jis taraf se aya usi taraf 
chala gaya. 



4. Although I began with the 
big ones and worked hard 
(made a big effort) still 
they remained disobedient. 

5. I worked hard with the 
little ones but they went 
on getting worse. 

6. Since the pony was worth 
Rs. 100, he would not take 
less than that (property of 
Rs. I oo). 

7. Whether he come or not, 
you must. 

8. Take either this or that, 
to me it is no difference. 

9. Neither the big nor the little 
one came, both remained 
disobedient. 

10. This work should be begun 
slowly, lest the children, 
seeing this new fashion, 
drawn back. 

11. Before I could go, he went. 

12. While there's life, there 
is hope. (While there is 
breath, till then is hope.) 

13. Stay here till I come (while 
I do not come). 

14. He went the way he came. 

15. He went the direction he 
came. 



147 



1 6. Jis waqt yih bat mujhe yad 
parti, main (us waqt) be- 
ikhtiyar hokar hawsta hun. 

17. Man len ki yih bat sach 
hai, tumhe;/ kya? 

1 8. Bande, tu koi kyun na ho, 
tere pas kof 'uzr nahin. 

19. Main ne do rupae nahiw 
balki char diye. 

20. Wahaw koi insan, balki 
haiwan tak koi dikhai na 
deta tha. 

21. Maiw mansukh karne nahin, 
balki pura karne aya hun. 

22. Us se puchho ki "Khana 
taiyar hai ya nahiw?" 

23. Mujhe shakk tha ki "aya 
main jagti hun, ya khwab 
dekhti hun." 

24. Go ap ne kaha bhi tha, 
usne na mana. 

25. Meri marzi yih hai ki jitna 
main tujhe deta hun, is 
pichhle ko, kam se kam, 
utna hi duw. 

26. Larka ae na larki, turn 
hi ao. 

27. Kash ki maiw paida hi na 
hua hota. 

28. Kash ki yih tamiz jo Khuda 
ne turn ko c ata ki hai, sab 
men hoti. 



1 6. When I recall this, I cannot 
keep from laughing. (At 
what time this falls to mind, 
I, out of hand, laugh.) 

17. Granted that this is true, 
what's that to you? 

1 8. Man, whoever thou art, 
thou hast no excuse. 

19. I gave not two but four 
rupes. 

20. There no man, not even 
a beast appeared. 

21. I came not to abolish, but 
to fulfill. 

22. Ask him, "Is dinner ready 
or not?". 

23. I was in doubt whether I 
was awake or seeing a 
dream. 

24. Though you told him, he 
did not obey. 

25. It is my wish that as much 
as I give thee, that much 
at least, I may give to 
this last. 

26. Let neither the boy come, 
nor the girl, only you 
come. 

27. Would that I had not been 
born. 

28. Would that this discretion, 
which God has given you, 
were in all. 



148 



29- Kash ki yih admi mera 
bhai Fazl ho. 

30. Kash ki log is bat ko 
samjhe;z. 

31. Kya khub hota ki ap ate. 

32. Tlawa iske ek aur bat hai. 

33. Kala kya! Lo, sahib, yih 
to ulta tawa hai. 

34. Chunanchi yih kitab mew 
likha hai. 

35. Chhote bare ae ham. 

36. Do tin rupae de dijiye. 

37. Kam o besh bis bais din 
lagewge. 

38. Sahib ne kaha ki fulane se 
mag lo. 

39. Mai kisi se mang laiiwga. 



40. Ek din ki bat ha; ki usne 
kaha ki main kisi na kisi 
din aunga. 

41. Main ne dekha, wuh bahut 
achchha ghora hai. 

42. Yih waqa'i bat hai ki yih 
kagaz achchhe hain. 

43. Wuh to kab ka pahuwcha 
hoga. 



29. Oh, may this man be my 
brother Fazl. 

30. Oh that people may under- 
stand this. 

31. How well it would have 
been if you had come. 

32. Besides this there is one 
more thing. 

33. Black, indeed! Come sir, 
he is an up-turned griddle. 

34. According to which it is 
written in the book. 

35. Small and great have come. 

36. Give (me) two (or) three 
rupees. 

37. It will take at least 20 or 
22 days. 

38. He said to ask it from a 
certain (definite) person. 

39. I'll get it from somebody 
(anybody)., 

40. One day he told me that 
he would come some day 
or other. 

41. I saw it, (and) it's a very 
good horse. 

42. It is a fact that this is 
good paper. 

43. He must have arrived a 
long time ago. 



Haqq 
Tattii 



truth 
pony 



Vocabulary Alfdz, 

Kam o besh less and more 
Tamiz discretion 



149 



'Ata 


endowed 


Khwah (khah).. 




Fulana 


a certain (definite) 


khwah (khah), 


either . . or 


Marzi 


will 


Chahe ... chahe 


either . . or 


Agar 


if 


Ya . . ya 


either . . or 


To 


then, indeed 


Na . . . . na 


Neither nor 


Warna 


else, otherwise 


.... na 


[neither] . . . nor 


Agarchi] 


although 


'Ilawa is ke 


Besides 


Go 


though /- 


Phir 


Again 


Tau bhi 


still 


Kash ki 


O that 


Taham 


nevertheless 


Aya 


whether 


Lekin 


but 


Peshtar is ke 


before this 


Magar 


but 1 


Is liye 


Wherefore 


Par 


but 


Us liye 


therefore 


Balki 


rather 


Jab tak 


while 


Chuwki 


since 


Jab tak na 


until 


Chuna;zchi 


accordingly 


Man len ki 


granted 


Aisa na ho 


ki lest 


Tab tak 


till when A /' 



LESSON XXXI. IKTI'SWAJV SABAQ. 



With 

1. Wuhlambasatarkhanapne 
bap ka sa kam karta hai. 

2. Larka murda sa para tha. 

3. Tujh sa c aqlmand admi 
mujh ko darkar hai. 

4. Mujh sa dukhiya ap ne 
kabhi na dekha hoga. 

5. Mujh garib ko kyuw diqq 
karte ho? 

6. Mujh gunagar par rahm kar. 

7. Mera sa dukh ap ne kabhi 
nahm dekha. 

8. Wuh gora sa larka ap ka 
hai? 



*sa". 

1 . That longish carpenter does 
work like his father's. 

2. The boy lay as dead. 

3. I need a wise man like 
thee. 

4. You can never have seen 
one so distressed as I. 

5. Why do you vex poor me? 

6. Have mercy on me a sinner. 

7. You have never seen such 
trouble as mine. 

8. Is that fairish boy yours? 



9. Wuh larai men sher sa 
admi hai. 

10. Yih darakht bahut sa phal 
lata hai. 

11. Us ka rang o raugan kuchh 
ka. kuchh ho gaya. 

12. Sab admi ek se nahi;z hote. 

13. Uski sher ki si surat da- 
rauni thi. 

14. Bahut se ghore yahaw par 
maujud hain. 

15. Jab mam mar gaya, to kaisa 
unka parhna? 

1 6. Khidmatgar ne kaha ki 
"Laya, janab". 



17. Is men ziyada pani hai, 
thora nikalo. 

1 8. Yih bara admi hai. Kuchh 
na kahna. 

19. Yih bara kharab admi hai. 
Mar dalega. 

20. Ba'zow ko jhuth bolna asan 
hai, ba'zow ko mushkil. 

21. Ap subh, do pahar se pesh- 
tar, do pahar ko, ya do 
pahar ke ba'd awewge? 

22. Khidmatgar, cha bhigo do. 
Janab, pd#ch minit hue ki 
bhigo di hai. 

23. Koi admi aya hai? 

(a) Chand admi ae hai. 



9. He is like a tiger in fight. 

10. This tree bears a lot of 
fruit. 

11. His colour and complexion 
quite changed. 

12. All men are not alike (one- 
ish). 

13. His tiger-like form was 
terrible. 

14. There are lots of horses 
here (present). 

15. When I am dead, how can 
they go to school? 

1 6. The waiter said, "I have 
brought it, sir", (but means, 
"I'll bring it in a few 
minutes"). 

17. There is too much water 
in this, take out a little. 

1 8. This is a great man. Say 
nothing. 

19. This is a very bad man. 
He'll kill you. 

20. To some lying is easy, to 
others difficult. 

21. Will you come in the mor- 
ning, forenoon, at noon, or 
after noon? 

22. Wet the tea, waiter? Sir, 
I wet it five minutes ago. 

23. Has any one come? 
(a) Several have come. 



(b) Kaiburhe(buddhe)admi 
ae hai. 

(c) Ba'z admi ae hai. 

(d) Do ek hi ae ham. 

24. Koi achchhi si dari nikalo. 

25. Kya yih mez ap ko pasand 
hai? 

26. Koi achchhi si hamko dikha 
do. Yih purani hai. 

27. Ikatthe akar sab lakriow ko 
ikattha karo. 



(b) A good many old men 
have come. 

(c) Some have come. 

(d) Only a few have come. 

24. Get out a good durry. 

25. Do you like this table? 

26. Show us a good one. 
This is an old one. 

27. Come together, and gather 
all the sticks. 



u Lamb a 


long 


Tarkhan j 


carpenter 


'Aqlmand 


wise, sensible' 


Dukh 


trouble 


Garib 


poor 


Dukhiya 


troubled one 


' Diqq 


vexed 


Sher 


tiger 


Gora 


white, light colored 


"Rang 


colour 


Ek sa 


alike 


Raugan 


polish 


Maujud 


present 


Kuchh 


something 


Hazir 


present (of persons) 


Kuchh ka kuchh 


something else 


Darauna 


terrifying 


Dari 


carpet 


Asan 


easy 


fc Chand 


several 


Mushkil 


hard 


Kai 


several 


L Pasand 


pleasing 


Purana, -i 


old, of things 


Murda 


dead. 


^ Biirha, buddha 


old, of persons 



LESSON XXXII. BATTISWAA^ SABAQ. 



1. Mai;z akela yih kam kar 
sakta hu. 

2. Wuh ja na saka, is liye 
main, bhi na gaya. 

3. Kya wuh apna kam na 
kar chuka tha? 



1. I am able to do this work 
alone. 

2. He was not able to go, so 
I, too, did not go. 

3. Had he not finished his 
work? 



152 



4. Kam to kar chuka tha, 
lekin jana na chahta tha. 

5. Apne kapre kahaw tanga 
karte ho? 

6. Is patthar ka kya wazn 
hai? Ap utha sakte haiw? 

7. Ap cha ya kafi piya karte 
haiw? 

8. Pahle to kafi piya karta 
tha, magar jab se Hindu- 
stan men ae, ham cha piya 
karte haiw. 

9. Ghora to bhagne laga hi 
tha, lekin sahib ne bhagne 
na diya. 

10. Relgarf abhi aya chahti hai. 

11. Bandagi, janab. 



4. Yes, he had finished his 
work, but he did not wish 
to go. 

5. Where do you hang your 
clothes (as your custom rj. 

6. What is the weight of this 
stone? Can you lift it? 

/. Do you drink tea or coffee? 

8. I used to drink coffee, but 
since we came to India, 
we drink tea. 

9. The horse indeed began 
to run, but master did not 
let him (run). 

10. The train is just coming. 

11. Good evening sir. (Ser- 
vice, sir). 

12. Good evening. (Service). 

13. Peace to you. 

14. And to you peace. 



12. Bandagi. 

13. Salam alaikum.* 

14. Walaikum salam. 

Diversification. Change pronouns of 1 8, so far as pos- 
sible, to other persons and genders. Change all the tenses. 
After the model of 10, use "clock . . . strike", "dinner . . . ready", 
"tiger fight", "girls .... sing", "people .... go". 

Substitute list verbs in 7. 



Vocabulary. Alfdz. 

Ihatm finished Kafi coffee 

Patthar stone Relgari rail - carriage, 

Wazn weight train. 

* Used only by Moslems. 



153 

DIVERSIFICATION TABLE. 

1. Nouns. Boy, girl, horse, mare, man, woman, king (raja), 
queen, foot, village, book, night, cow, buffalo, buffalo-bull, 
ox, he-ass, she-ass, bird, brother, sister, river, fan, curtain, 
paper (kagaz-at), place. (Singulars and plurals). 

2. Verbs. Dena, lena, ana, jana, uthna, baithna, hona, chalna, 
karna, marna, marna, dekhna, sunna, bolna, kahna, rakhna, 
kharidna (mol lena), lana, bulana, milna, bhejna, chahna, 
nikalna, bachna, dhona, it appears, ought, have (of possession, 
as I, thou, etc., have it). (In all persons and tenses). 

3. Causals. Marna, marna, marwana, tutna, torna, torana, bolna, 
bulana, bulwana, chhutna, chhorna, chhurana, dekhna, dikhana, 
dena, dilana, dilwana, uthna, uthana, uthwana, karna, karana, 
samajhna, samjhana, rakhna, rakhana, rakhwana, sunna, su- 
nana, kahna, kahlana, milna, milana, nikalna, nikalna, nikal- 
wana, bachna, bachana, bikna, bechna, bikwana. (In all 
persons, moods, and tenses). 

4. Personal Prounous (Nom.). Main, ham; tu, turn, ap; wuh, 
yih: (Obj.) mujh, mujhe; tujh, tujhe; ham, hame;z; turn, tum- 
hew, ap; us, use, un, unho, unhew; (Poss.) Mera-f-e; tera-i-e, 
apka-f-e; uska-f-e, unka-f-e: hamara-i-e, tumhara-i-e, apka4- ; 
unka-i-e, inka-f-e; apna-i-e. (In all genders). 

5. Prepositions. Me, se, par, tak, ko, lie (waste), ka-i-e, ke lie 
(ke waste), me?z se, par se, ke pas, ke age (ke samne), ke 
pichhe, ke niche, ke andar, ke bahar, ke bich, ke sath, ke 
ba'd, ke pahle, ke vipar, ke siwa, ke barabar, ke sabab, ke 
laiq, ke ird gird, ki babat,f [ki khatir, ki taraf, ki tarah, Id 
maVifat, ki manind, ki nisbat, ki jagah (with all classes 
of nouns). 

6. Adverbs. Jaise, jaha, kahiw, ab ki daf c a, ab, abhi, kabhf, 
kabhi nahiw, bar bar, aj, kal, parse n, yahaw, waha, haw, 
nahi, na, mat, bahut, hamesha, idhar, udhar, yu, is tarah, 



154 

us tarah, jhat pat, to, bhi, par, sawere, zor se, bara, masalan, 
faqat, qariban, hargiz nahi#. 

7. Adjectives. Good, bad, cold, hot, heavy, light, close, far, 
hard, easy, harsh, soft, wide, narrow, clean, dirty, ready, 
enough, high, low, true, false, young, old, rich, poor, in the 
three degrees, and with hond and karnd. 

8. Relatives, Interrogatives and others. Yih, wuh, aur, ziyada, 
aisa, waisa, aksar, baqi, dono, gair, ba'z, (ba'ze), bahut, kai, 
kuchh, sab, kull, chand. 

Kab? kidhar? kaisa? kyu? kaun? kya? kis tarah? Jab, jidhar, 
jaisa, jyuw. 

Jo, koi, jo koi, jo jo, jo kuchh. Fulana, ek dusra, sab kuchh, 
aur kuchh, har, har koi, sab koi, ap, khud. 

9. Numbers. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 
ten, eleven etc. Ek, do, tin, char, panch, chha, sat, ath, nau, 
das, gyara, bara, tera, chauda, pandra, sola, satra, athara, 
unnis, bis, pachis, pachas, sau, sainkra. First, second etc. 
Pahla-i (or. awwal), dusra-i', tisra-i, chautha-i, panchwaw, -wiw, 
chhatha-f, satwa/z, athwa^, etc. 

Time Table for Study (suggested). 

1. 15 minutes Ear and Tongue exercises. 

2. Read over the past sentences. 

3. 15 minutes learning new sentence. 

4. I hour's practice on slips. 

5. T /2 hour reading Urdu character. 

6. As much "Oral composition", sentence formation, and 
diversification, as possible. 

Repeat in the afternoon. 



INDEX/ 



Accent, 3238 
Aspiration, 19 20, 38 
Attainment, standard of, 10 
Brogue, 7, 8 
Chalna, 97 99 
Conditionals 87 97 
Consonants, 16 27 

defined, 15 

doubled, 30 
Conversation, n 
Difficulties. 4, II, 12 
Diversification, 13 
Ear training, 6 7, 38 44 
Focus of breath, 23 
Foreign words, 33 38 
Future, 71 75 
Gender, 12 13 
Grammar, 13. 

Hearing, 34, 9, 12, 2930 
Idiom, 8 

Infinitive, 86 89 
Intonation, 8, 30 
Interrogatives, 60 
Jana, 9799 
Lagna, 100 103 

Conjugation of, 104 

* Nos. refer 



Language 

material, 5 

method, I 14, 7 

principles of, VII, 3 14 
Medium of instruction, 6 
Memory, 78, 14, 32, 59 
Nasality, 16 
Nasals, 16, 26, 27 
Noun Declension, 58 
Numbers, 61 63 
Phonetics, 14 44 

Importance of, 31 
Prepositions, 134 145 
Pronouns 

Interrogative, 61 

Personal, 58 

Relative, 113 116 
Reading, 6, 31 
Repetition, 8, 910, 1314 

of words, 9093 
Rounding, 29 
Sa, 149 
Sentence, the unit, 6 

moulds, 1 1 
Speed, 50, 58 
Spreading, 19, 27 
to pages. 



- i 5 6 - 



Stops, 1518 
Subjunctive, 117 119 
Tongue, 7, 8, 22 27 
Verbs 

of ability, 151 152 

Cause, 107 in 

Completion, 152 

Compulsion, 1 30 

Continuation, 85 86, 132, 133 

Permission, 128 

Uncertainty, 131 132 



Verbs 

Participles, 119 128 

Passives, 105 107,111 112 

Permission, 128 

with "ne" 75 79 
Voice, 14 15 
Vowels, 12, 28 29 

defined 14, 15 
Wala, 125128 
Whispering, 29 30 
Yawning, 27 




A 000 121 426 1